Sicily

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3 09, 2017

First Punic War – Carthage and Rome

By |2019-06-09T16:05:46-07:00September 3rd, 2017|History, Romans|0 Comments

Sicily seen from space (the tip of Italy is on the right): the First Punic War was fought here. We know the Roman side Most of what we know about the First Punic War comes from either Polybius or Livy: they were on the Roman side. We don't have any Carthaginian history books anymore. Who [...]

3 08, 2017

Late medieval Italy – Guelfs and Ghibellines

By |2019-10-08T18:14:57-07:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Late medieval Italy: Constance of Sicily (late 1100s AD) North Italy's republics All through the later middle ages, Northern Italy was still divided into lots of small independent city-states. The most important city-states were Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, Siena, and Venice. Florence and the Medici The port of Genoa Venice and the Ottomans But the Holy Roman Emperors often attacked these [...]

3 08, 2017

Eighth Crusade – Medieval Europe

By |2019-05-25T14:55:18-07:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Louis IX sailing to Tunis with the Eighth Crusade (1270 AD) Why even do an Eighth Crusade? When Blanche of Castile died, her son Louis IX of France had to spend some time at home in France getting things organized. But then Louis' youngest brother Charles encouraged him to try another Crusade. Blanche and Louis Who was [...]

3 08, 2017

Third Crusade – Medieval history

By |2018-04-11T09:09:27-07:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Saladin (Salah al-din) When the Mamluk general Imad-ed-din Zangi died, he was succeeded by his son Nureddin, who added Damascus to the land his father had gathered together. And after Nureddin died in 1174 AD, a strong Kurdish general named Salah al-din (called Saladin in the West) took over. Salah al-din soon conquered Egypt from the Fatimids, and then he was [...]

2 08, 2017

Medieval Italy – the High Middle Ages

By |2019-10-08T08:10:12-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Medieval Italy: Matilda of Canossa (ca. 1100 AD) Matilda of Canossa By about 900 AD, the Holy Roman Emperors started to lose power over Northern Italy. The Counts of Canossa controlled most of Northern Italy: Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa. Matilda of Canossa Holy Roman Empire Early Medieval Venice All our medieval Europe articles St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice, Italy [...]

2 08, 2017

Early Medieval Italy

By |2019-10-09T07:32:17-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Early medieval Italy: Lombard shield boss (to make spears slide off it) (Metropolitan Museum, New York) Northern Italy and France In 774 AD, Charlemagne conquered northern Italy from the Lombards. Soon after that Charlemagne got the Pope to name him the Roman Emperor. For the next three hundred years, northern Italy was in the hands of these [...]

2 08, 2017

Eleanor of Aquitaine – Queen of France and England

By |2019-03-25T05:46:22-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Eleanor of Aquitaine (Cloisters Museum, New York City) Eleanor of Aquitaine was fifteen years old in 1137 AD, and not yet married, when her father, the Duke of Aquitaine, died suddenly. Eleanor had no brothers, so she inherited her father's duchy, which included most of southern France. France under the Capetians Feudalism in medieval [...]

2 08, 2017

Vikings – Early Medieval Scandinavia

By |2019-09-11T10:32:14-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

A Viking ship. Viking trade took the Vikings all over the world. Who were the Vikings? The Vikings were Indo-European people from Scandinavia (modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden). Around the 400s AD the Vikings started to make frequent raids by boat into Europe. They even went into the Mediterranean Sea and raided Sicily and southern Italy. The Vikings started to attack the Atlantic coast [...]

2 08, 2017

Nicephorus and Leo – Byzantine history

By |2018-04-15T16:50:55-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Maybe the skull cup was something like this? Nicephorus deposed the Empress Irene in 802 AD and made himself emperor. He refused to pay tribute to the Islamic caliph, and therefore lost still more Roman territory to the Abbasids. On the other hand, he fought successfully for Greece against the Slavs and Bulgars, and negotiated with Charlemagne to recognize his claim to the [...]

18 07, 2017

Who was Pythagoras? Greek Mathematics

By |2019-09-13T07:00:22-07:00July 18th, 2017|Greeks|10 Comments

Near where Pythagoras lived: Doric temple at Paestum, Italy Who was Pythagoras? Pythagoras lived in the 500s BC. He was one of the first Greek mathematical thinkers that we know about, after Thales. Who was Thales? All about Greek mathematics Lots of articles about ancient Greece Pythagoras spent most of his life in the Greek colonies in [...]