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Anne of Austria, Queen of France

By |2018-09-24T06:18:07+00:00August 4th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Anne of Austria Anne of Austria rules France Cardinal Richelieu died in 1642 AD and Louis XIII died the next year, in 1643. Louis' wife, Anne of Austria, ruled after him as regent for her four year old son, Louis XIV. Who was Richelieu? What is a regent? European history articles Anne's minister Mazarin Anne was in [...]

What is a regent? Kings and Queens

By |2017-08-03T16:11:32+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Empress Wu of the T'ang Dynasty A regent is someone who rules for somebody else. Usually it is an uncle or mother who rules for a child. Maybe the child is too young to be king. Or maybe they're ruling for a mentally disabled king. The regent rules only until the child is old [...]

Late medieval Hungary

By |2018-09-18T06:32:33+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Late medieval Hungary: Mongols kill Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi (1241 AD) The Mongols invade Hungary Hungary fell on hard times in 1241 AD, when the Mongols invaded Eastern Europe from Central Asia. The Mongols brought with them a new invention -  gunpowder from China. Earlier history of Hungary Who were the Mongols? Who invented gunpowder? Many Jewish [...]

Who were the Visigoths? Early Middle Ages

By |2018-04-09T10:31:12+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Gold coin minted by King Euric,with the name of the Roman Emperor on it The Visigoths established a kingdom for themselves within the collapsing Roman Empire in 418 AD. They took over most of south-western France (Aquitaine), a very fertile area where many Romans lived. The Visigoths at first acted more or less as representatives of the Roman government. They [...]

Theodoric and the Ostrogoths

By |2017-08-02T14:37:31+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Ostrogothic helmet By 476 AD, the Ostrogoths were still living north of the Black Sea, but the Roman Emperors no longer had any practical power in the West. In that year, the last Roman Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed, and a Hun named Odoacer took charge of what was left of the Western Empire (mainly Italy). Odoacer sent [...]

Theodora and Bardas – Byzantine History

By |2018-04-21T13:19:57+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Empress Theodora on a gold coin, with her son and daughter on the other side. With Theophilus dead, in 842 AD the Empire again had a woman in charge. The empress Theodora, at 27, became regent for her two-year-old son, Michael. Theodora was an iconodule. She allowed artists to make icons again. But she was smarter than Irene, and [...]

Leo to Empress Irene – Byzantine History

By |2017-08-02T09:17:48+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Leo the Isaurian (ca. 720 AD, Louvre museum, Paris) When Justinian's assassin Philippicus turned out to be a worthless party animal, other Roman officials killed him. In 713 AD the people of Constantinople chose a court official named Anastasius II to be the next emperor. Anastasius (ann-ah-STAYS-yus) was a practical guy, with good ideas - but [...]

Basil, Zoe, and the Armenian Dynasty

By |2017-08-01T16:42:13+00:00August 1st, 2017|History, Medieval|

Basil I (867-886 AD) Basil killed Bardas and took over as Roman Emperor in 867 AD. That started the Armenian Dynasty. People call it that because of Basil's Armenian ancestors. (Sometimes people call it the Macedonian Dynasty because Basil was born in Macedon.) Basil continued basically the same policies as Bardas had. He was nice to the Bulgars [...]

Taika period – Early Medieval Japan

By |2018-04-18T09:53:56+00:00July 27th, 2017|History, Japan, Where|

Court attendants (Takamatsuzuka Tomb, ca. 600s AD) Now that Japan had declared independence from China, Empress Suiko and her successors built a new government for Japan. They wanted Japan's government to be just as good as China's government. Empress Suiko ruled for 35 years before she died in 628 AD. Prince Shotoku had already died six years [...]

Gupta period in India – Ancient India

By |2018-04-23T15:15:59+00:00July 20th, 2017|History, India|

Coin of Samudragupta In 319 AD, King Chandragupta I managed to unite all of northern India into a great empire again. (He was not related to the Mauryan Chandragupta, but he wanted people to think he was). Chandragupta I even conquered some of South India. People called him "King of Kings", like the Iranian emperors further north. [...]