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The human body in medieval and modern science

By |2018-04-25T17:09:55-07:00September 6th, 2017|Biology, Science|

Chinese drawing of the organs (about 1200) Between the Middle Ages and modern times, doctors have learned a lot of new things about how human bodies work. The Islamic doctor Al-Tabari, in the early 800s, learned that light bounces off objects into your eyes. Al-Tabari's student Al Razi figured out that a fever is your body's way of fighting illness, not [...]

Galen and Roman medicine – doctors in the Roman Empire

By |2019-03-26T21:15:19-07:00September 4th, 2017|Romans, Science|

Roman medicine: Galen used surgical instruments like these What do we mean by Roman medicine? Roman medicine is really West Asian and African medicine. That's because most of the great doctors of the Roman Empire lived in West Asia (in Turkey and Syria), or in Africa (in Egypt), not in Europe. Egyptian doctors [...]

What is electricity? Physics

By |2019-05-27T06:51:27-07:00August 16th, 2017|Physics|

What is electricity? A bolt of lightning in the sky What is electricity made of? Everything in the universe is made of atoms.  Those atoms are made of electricity. Atoms are made of even smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electricity is electrons that have gotten loose from their atom. More about electrons History of electricity What [...]

Why do eyes have pupils? Evolution and Biology

By |2019-06-03T18:50:53-07:00May 27th, 2017|Biology|

Cats have pupils that can get bigger or smaller. Eyes start to focus light By around 550 million years ago, some kinds of worms evolved eyespots sunk into their heads to protect them from being damaged. The origin of eyespots From eyespots to eyes Still the Proterozoic All our biology articles As a side effect, [...]

What are neurons? Nervous system evolution and biology

By |2017-05-27T15:24:43-07:00May 27th, 2017|Biology|

A network of neurons One-celled creatures like bacteria don't have neurons, because they can communicate within themselves through the use of enzymes, but all multicellular animals do have neurons. The simplest and earliest example of neurons is in hydras, which evolved around 600 million years ago. In hydras, neurons are not organized into [...]