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Ottoman Empire Pashas – 1656-1700 AD

By |2018-04-25T23:04:50+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Venice and the Ottoman Fleet in a naval battle (1661) Koprulu Mehmed Pasha only ruled for five years before he died, but in that time he rescued the Ottoman navy from the Venetians, and he won battles in the Balkans against Hungary that made the Ottoman Empire bigger. When he died in 1661, [...]

Renaissance Europe – Charles V

By |2018-09-07T09:51:54+00:00August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Charles Quint (by Titian, 1548) The Ottomans terrify Europe The biggest worry that people had in the early 1500s AD in Europe was that the Ottoman Empire was going to conquer Europe. Would Europe be ruled by Islamic rulers? Who were the Ottomans though? And in fact the Ottomans, under their sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, did conquer the eastern [...]

Austria-Hungary in the 1800s

By |2018-04-08T21:33:41+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Leopold's son Francis II Leopold attacks France Joseph II of Austria died at 48 in 1790 AD, just before the French Revolution. His younger brother Leopold II took power. The new French government arrested their sister Marie Antoinette, the Queen of France, and Leopold soon led Austria and Prussia into war with France. When Leopold died at [...]

Medieval universities in Europe

By |2017-08-04T09:21:20+00:00August 4th, 2017|Medieval|

Medieval university With the fall of Rome, the universities of northern Europe closed too. The end of Mediterranean trade meant that nobody could afford to get an advanced education anymore. In Europe, there were only small schools run by the Catholic church. Or independent scholars gave public lectures and tutored private students. Or there [...]

Late medieval Russia – History

By |2018-04-24T09:09:10+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Church of Yuriev-Polsky (1200s) By the 1200s AD, Russia was weak from civil wars. So the Mongols attacked Russia and forced the eastern part into the Mongol empire. The Mongol empire made it even easier to trade across Asia, and the Russians continued to get rich from this trade. But in the early 1300s, the trade [...]

Late medieval Poland – History

By |2018-09-18T09:01:48+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

The treaty that Queen Jadwiga and Duke Jogaila signed in 1385 AD Little Queen Jadwiga Queen Jadwiga was only ten years old in 1384. But her mother Elizabeth sent her north from Hungary to become the Queen of Poland. Elizabeth stayed behind to rule Hungary. She was regent for Jadwiga's older sister. More about Elizabeth of Hungary [...]

Late medieval Hungary

By |2018-09-18T06:32:33+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Late medieval Hungary: Mongols kill Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi (1241 AD) The Mongols invade Hungary Hungary fell on hard times in 1241 AD, when the Mongols invaded Eastern Europe from Central Asia. The Mongols brought with them a new invention -  gunpowder from China. Earlier history of Hungary Who were the Mongols? Who invented gunpowder? Many Jewish [...]

Holy Roman Empire – Late Middle Ages

By |2017-08-03T12:01:04+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II was only two years old when his father died in 1197 AD. So there were several civil wars over who held power while he grew up. Once he did grow up, Frederick II ruled both Germany and Italy for a long time. Like his father and grandfather, he was [...]

Fourth Crusade – the sack of Constantinople

By |2018-04-24T09:08:57+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

In 1200 AD, Pope Innocent began to ask the rulers of Europe to participate in a fourth crusade, again attempting to take Jerusalem away from the Ayyubids who ruled there. Saladin had died in 1193 AD, and the Crusaders thought his successors were weaker and would be easier to beat. This time they would try something different. Instead of coming down from the north, [...]

Fifth Crusade – Medieval history

By |2017-08-03T11:29:17+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

The siege of Damietta In 1216 AD, Pope Honorius III succeeded in getting some more Europeans to agree to try again to conquer Jerusalem from the Ayyubids. This time, the Pope would be in charge instead of European kings. Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire wanted to come along, but the Pope said no, this crusade was for the [...]