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History of Brazil – Brazil and colonization

By |2018-08-19T05:59:20+00:00September 8th, 2017|History, South America, Where|

History of Brazil: The Tapuia people, ca. 1650 (by Albert Eckhout) Tupi war with Tapuia In the late 1400s AD, the Tupi people had just won a big war with the Tapuia people. They had gotten control of the Atlantic coast of South America (modern Brazil). They forced most of the Tapuia people inland. So the [...]

Renaissance Europe – Charles V

By |2018-09-07T09:51:54+00:00August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Charles Quint (by Titian, 1548) The Ottomans terrify Europe The biggest worry that people had in the early 1500s AD in Europe was that the Ottoman Empire was going to conquer Europe. Would Europe be ruled by Islamic rulers? Who were the Ottomans though? And in fact the Ottomans, under their sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, did conquer the eastern [...]

Thirty Years’ War – Wars of religion

By |2018-04-08T11:14:17+00:00August 4th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Protestants throw Catholic officials out the window (Prague, 1618 AD) In the late 1500s AD, the Holy Roman Emperors were too weak to hold their empire together as one country. Instead, the Holy Roman Empire was divided into many little tiny countries. Some of these countries were Catholic. Some of them were Protestant. In 1618 [...]

Pieter Brueghel – European Art

By |2017-08-04T14:18:03+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Pieter Brueghel, Children's Games (1560 AD) As European traders began to sail directly to China in the late 1400s AD, they brought back all kinds of new things to Europe: porcelain vases, paper fans, silk cloth. Pieter Brueghel lived in the Netherlands, which was then part of the Holy Roman Empire of Charles [...]

Late medieval Russia – History

By |2018-04-24T09:09:10+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Church of Yuriev-Polsky (1200s) By the 1200s AD, Russia was weak from civil wars. So the Mongols attacked Russia and forced the eastern part into the Mongol empire. The Mongol empire made it even easier to trade across Asia, and the Russians continued to get rich from this trade. But in the early 1300s, the trade [...]

Late medieval Poland – History

By |2018-09-18T09:01:48+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

The treaty that Queen Jadwiga and Duke Jogaila signed in 1385 AD Little Queen Jadwiga Queen Jadwiga was only ten years old in 1384. But her mother Elizabeth sent her north from Hungary to become the Queen of Poland. Elizabeth stayed behind to rule Hungary. She was regent for Jadwiga's older sister. More about Elizabeth of Hungary [...]

Late medieval Italy – Guelfs and Ghibellines

By |2018-09-27T12:27:25+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Constance of Sicily (late 1100s AD) North Italy's republics All through the later middle ages, Northern Italy was still divided into lots of small independent city-states. The most important city-states were Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, Siena, and Venice. Florence and the Medici The port of Genoa Venice and the Ottomans But the Holy Roman Emperors often attacked these city-states and tried [...]

Late medieval Hungary

By |2018-09-18T06:32:33+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Late medieval Hungary: Mongols kill Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi (1241 AD) The Mongols invade Hungary Hungary fell on hard times in 1241 AD, when the Mongols invaded Eastern Europe from Central Asia. The Mongols brought with them a new invention -  gunpowder from China. Earlier history of Hungary Who were the Mongols? Who invented gunpowder? Many Jewish [...]

Holy Roman Empire – Late Middle Ages

By |2017-08-03T12:01:04+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II was only two years old when his father died in 1197 AD. So there were several civil wars over who held power while he grew up. Once he did grow up, Frederick II ruled both Germany and Italy for a long time. Like his father and grandfather, he was [...]

Third Crusade – Medieval history

By |2018-04-11T09:09:27+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Saladin (Salah al-din) When the Mamluk general Imad-ed-din Zangi died, he was succeeded by his son Nureddin, who added Damascus to the land his father had gathered together. And after Nureddin died in 1174 AD, a strong Kurdish general named Salah al-din (called Saladin in the West) took over. Salah al-din soon conquered Egypt from the Fatimids, and then he was [...]