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3 10, 2017

Islamic North Africa – caravans across the Sahara

By |2019-08-21T09:31:54-07:00October 3rd, 2017|Africa|0 Comments

Islamic North Africa: Kairouan mosque (ca. 800 AD) The Eastern Roman reconquest of North Africa in the 530s AD ended the Vandal kingdom there. But trade declined until the Islamic invasions of North Africa in the 600s AD and the establishment of the Umayyad, and then the Fatimid dynasties. Fatimids Under Islamic rule, North Africa became part of a [...]

8 09, 2017

History of Brazil – Brazil and colonization

By |2019-02-22T06:00:17-07:00September 8th, 2017|History, South America, Where|0 Comments

History of Brazil: The Tapuia people, ca. 1650 (by Albert Eckhout) Tupi war with Tapuia In the late 1400s AD, the Tupi people had just won a big war with the Tapuia people. They had gotten control of the Atlantic coast of South America (modern Brazil). They forced most of the Tapuia people inland. So the [...]

7 09, 2017

History of gold and gold mining

By |2019-07-08T15:52:19-07:00September 7th, 2017|Economy|0 Comments

History of gold - a bust of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamon When did people first use gold? People have been using gold to make jewelry since the Stone Age. You can find it just lying in little lumps in streams here and there. And gold is always pretty and yellow, even when it is just lying [...]

22 08, 2017

St. Nicholas – Christian saints

By |2018-04-24T23:09:09-07:00August 22nd, 2017|Medieval, Religion, Romans|0 Comments

Nicholas hands the purses through the window to the poor girls (Chartres Cathedral, about 1200 AD) St. Nicholas is a Christian saint who is one source for the idea of Santa Claus. According to the story, Nicolas was born in the Roman Empire (in modern Turkey) about 270 AD. This was a time when a lot of people were [...]

12 08, 2017

Californians fight the Missions

By |2018-10-02T07:43:05-07:00August 12th, 2017|History, Native American|0 Comments

Ohlone people crossing San Francisco Bay, with a European wool blanket (Louis Choris, 1816 AD) Native people in California In 1500 AD, California was a popular place to live. About one out of every three people living in what would become the United States lived in California. Early Native Californians More articles about [...]

12 08, 2017

The Apache get horses – American history

By |2019-09-16T20:21:41-07:00August 12th, 2017|Native American|4 Comments

The Apache get horses: an Apache rock painting, ca. 1800 AD Who were the Apache? Like their Navajo cousins, the Apache people were Athabascan. They moved south into the south-west part of North America from their home in Canada about 1400 AD. So when the Spanish invaders came in the 1500s, the Apache hadn't been in the Southwest [...]

5 08, 2017

Early Modern Spain – Philip II

By |2019-04-04T12:37:14-07:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|0 Comments

Philip II of Spain Philip II of Spain As the great-grandson of Isabella, who had sent Columbus to America, and the son of Isabella of Portugal, Philip II ruled Spain starting in 1556 AD. Isabella and Ferdinand Isabella of Portugal All our modern Europe articles Philip also controlled huge Spanish territories in South and [...]

2 08, 2017

The Avars – Early Middle Ages

By |2019-02-06T18:24:16-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Grasslands of Central Asia - the steppe homeland of the Avars Ruled by the Rouran The Avars were a mostly Turkic group of people. We first hear of them living in Central Asia under the rule of the Rouran, in the 400s AD. Who were the Rouran? The Early Middle Ages All our Central Asia articles The Chinese, [...]

2 08, 2017

Nicephorus and Leo – Byzantine history

By |2018-04-15T16:50:55-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Maybe the skull cup was something like this? Nicephorus deposed the Empress Irene in 802 AD and made himself emperor. He refused to pay tribute to the Islamic caliph, and therefore lost still more Roman territory to the Abbasids. On the other hand, he fought successfully for Greece against the Slavs and Bulgars, and negotiated with Charlemagne to recognize his claim to the [...]

1 08, 2017

Medieval economy – Europe

By |2018-04-24T08:21:22-07:00August 1st, 2017|Economy, Medieval|0 Comments

Medieval economy: A carpenter works in his shop. Collapse of trade After the fall of Rome, people in Europe used money less than they had before. Instead they mostly lived on what they could produce themselves. Rich people lived on what they could make other people give them because they were landlords or landladies. Money and silk [...]