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What is typhoid fever? History of diseases

By |2018-09-11T05:38:29+00:00September 7th, 2017|Science|

Typhoid fever: A person with typhoid rash (Iran) Is it typhoid or typhus? Typhoid fever isn't the same thing as typhus at all. You catch typhus from being bit by lice that have bitten people with typhoid, and you catch typhoid from drinking water with traces of human poop in it. (You can't catch typhoid from animals.) Find [...]

What is malaria? History of diseases and medicine

By |2018-04-24T08:21:21+00:00September 7th, 2017|Africa, Science|

A baby with malaria (from World Health Organization) You catch malaria by being bitten by a mosquito that has malaria parasites living inside it. (Female mosquitoes bite people to get blood. That gives them enough energy to make baby mosquitoes.) When the mosquito bites you, the malaria parasites go from the mosquito's mouth into your blood. [...]

Influenza – History of Medicine

By |2018-04-25T17:10:21+00:00September 6th, 2017|Science|

Clay hen whistle from Mohenjo Daro (ca. 2700 BC, now in Brooklyn Museum) Influenza is a virus that mostly infects birds - like chickens - and pigs. But influenza can also attack people. Probably people started to get influenza around the time they started keeping chickens and living in cities - in China and India, about 3000 BC, in Greece about 500 BC, and in North [...]

What is Dysentery? – History of diarrhea

By |2018-08-30T04:48:48+00:00September 6th, 2017|Greeks, Science|

History of Dysentery: Dysentery came from germs in your drinking water. Here people are washing clothes in the river (India) What is dysentery? Dysentery means having trouble with your insides - your intestines. You might say you had a tummy-ache. It usually means that you have very serious diarrhea. The history of dysentery [...]

What is dengue fever? History of disease and medicine

By |2018-04-25T10:34:33+00:00September 6th, 2017|Science|

Dengue history: the dengue virus - magnified many times Dengue history Probably dengue fever didn't exist before the late 1700s AD, so in the ancient and medieval worlds there was no dengue fever. Most people think that the virus that causes dengue evolved from some earlier virus that didn't make people sick. Dengue appeared all over [...]

Jean-Paul Sartre – European philosophy

By |2018-04-08T11:14:29+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Jean-Paul Sartre - a French philosopher After World War I, many people in Europe felt that the old world had ended and a new world was beginning. Jean-Paul Sartre grew up at the beginning of that new world. Sartre's father died of a fever when Sartre was two years old, and his mother [...]

Who was Velazquez? Spanish art history

By |2017-08-04T15:58:00+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Velazquez (self-portrait), ca. 1650 AD, when he was about fifty years old. Diego Velazquez was one of the best artists of the generation after Rubens. He was born in 1599, in Seville, in southern Spain. He may have been descended from Spanish Jews who had been forced to convert to Catholicism a hundred years earlier. Young [...]

Raphael – Biography – Renaissance art

By |2018-04-23T09:44:15+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Raphael's early selfie as a teenager Raphael, Titian, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci were the four greatest painters of the Renaissance in Italy. Raphael was born in 1483, when Michelangelo was eight years old and Leonardo was already grown up; Titian was a little younger. With their new Chinese compasses, the first European ships were just beginning to sail south to Congo and Angola. Columbus reached the Caribbean when Raphael was nine [...]

Medieval Islamic medicine – the first hospitals and quarantines

By |2018-04-18T18:18:05+00:00July 27th, 2017|Islam, Science|

Islamic medicine: From an Ottoman manuscript, two doctors telling the pharmacist how to make different medicines Writing medical encyclopedias Doctors made big scientific advances in medicine during the Islamic empire. Islamic doctors began by collecting all the medical observations and logic of the past. They translated the work of Hippocrates and his followers, and Galen, into Arabic. About 750 [...]

Medieval Islamic science

By |2018-04-24T08:21:20+00:00July 27th, 2017|Islam, Science|

Al Tusi's diagram of linear motion from circular motion In the Early Middle Ages, before the formation of the Islamic Empire, Buddhists ran the world's biggest universities. One was in India, at Nalanda. Another was in what is now Pakistan, at Taxila. In Egypt, the University of Alexandria was still an important center of learning, too. Most serious scholars went to [...]