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European science – the Enlightenment

By |2017-08-07T21:37:41-07:00August 7th, 2017|Math, Modern Europe, Physics, Science|

Gottfried Leibniz, a German mathematician By 1650 AD, Europeans understood Islamic algebra and trigonometry better. Then they combined that with the exciting invention of the telescope and microscope. Together, these two new things led to a lot more new scientific discoveries. The Wars of Religion also got a lot of people thinking about what they really believed. How could you know for sure? [...]

European science in the 1800s

By |2018-04-16T10:32:30-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Science|

European boys at school in the 1800s In the first half of the 1800s AD, countries in northern Europe like France and Britain forced India, Ghana, Nigeria, Canada, and other countries to give them food. That meant that many people in northern Europe could stop farming and get an education. Families sent more boys to school than girls, so most of the educated people were [...]

Jesuits after 1700 – History of religion

By |2018-04-08T21:33:36-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Religion|

Jesuit teachers in Brazil By the 1700s AD, the Jesuits owned a lot of farms and mines in countries all over the world. The governments of these countries started to worry that the Jesuits were too powerful. Also, the governments wanted to get their hands on all the money the Jesuits were making. The Enlightenment was making a [...]

Enlightenment – European religion

By |2017-08-07T09:21:04-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Religion|

René Descartes All this fighting about religion meant that people in Europe spent a lot of time thinking about what they really believed. So by 1630 AD, some people got some new ideas about God. This was the beginning of the Enlightenment. In 1630, Rene Descartes wrote that people should only believe things that had been proven to [...]

Mary Wollstonecraft – European philosophy

By |2019-04-27T19:54:01-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Mary Wollstonecraft - European philosophy Who was Mary Wollstonecraft? Mary Wollstonecraft was the most famous woman among the Enlightenment philosophers of the 1700s AD. Damaris Masham Mary Astell Enlightenment philosophy All our modern Europe articles What did Wollstonecraft say? Like Damaris Masham and Mary Astell in the 1600s, Wollstonecraft mainly argued that men should not prevent women from getting [...]

John Locke – European philosophy

By |2018-04-08T11:14:28-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

John Locke John Locke was an English philosopher in the late 1600s AD. He was just starting his career at the height of the Enlightenment, when Hobbes was an old man. Locke's mother and father were both Puritans; his mother ran the household while his father worked as a lawyer. Locke went to college at Oxford, though he [...]

Immanuel Kant – European philosophy

By |2018-04-11T18:23:26-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Immanuel Kant, a European philosopher Immanuel Kant's family and childhood By the end of the 1700s AD, Germany was beginning to be a more powerful country. France was busy with the Revolution, and the next important European philosopher after Rousseau came from Germany: Immanuel Kant. Unlike earlier philosophers, Kant never traveled more than ten miles from his home in [...]

Thomas Hobbes – European philosophy

By |2018-04-23T09:44:15-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Thomas Hobbes, a European philosopher Thomas Hobbes (yes, he's the one that Calvin named his tiger after) lived in England, about fifty years after Calvin and about the same time as Descartes. While Hobbes' sister was kept at home, as a man Hobbes got to go to college at Oxford and read Thucydides, Aristotle, and other ancient authors. After [...]

Louis XV and Lous XVI of France

By |2018-04-24T07:56:24-07:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philippe II d'Orleans, regent for Louis XV When Louis XIV died in 1715 AD, his great-grandson Louis was only five years old. First his uncle Philippe, then his teacher Cardinal Fleury, ran the government. Both these men saw that more and more people in France were getting interested in Enlightenment ways of thinking. How should the Enlightenment [...]

French Revolution – History of France

By |2019-04-02T04:44:41-07:00August 5th, 2017|Modern Europe|

French women revolutionaries march on the king's palace at Versailles Why did France want a revolution? All through the 1700s, Enlightenment philosophers in France had been figuring out new ways of thinking about the world. Little by little they rejected religion and inherited power. These philosophers were saying that people should use logic and reason to [...]