Eleanor of Aquitaine

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Logic and the scientific method

By |2018-05-31T11:49:22+00:00September 6th, 2017|Science|

An eclipse of the moon. You can see the curved shadow of the Earth. Once people have seen that something happens through observation, sooner or later it will occur to them to ask why it happens. And is there any way to prove that it will happen the same way every time? Sumerians developed advanced math to [...]

Christian nuns – Medieval Europe

By |2018-04-24T09:15:23+00:00August 4th, 2017|Medieval, Religion|

Egyptian caves where early monks and nuns lived The first Christian nuns, like the first Christian monks, lived in Africa - they lived alone in the desert in Egypt in the 300s and 400s AD, where they could be alone to pray all day. Like the men, they probably got the idea from earlier Buddhist nuns in India (many traders went back and forth [...]

Anna Comnena’s Alexiad – Byzantine literature

By |2017-08-03T21:02:22+00:00August 3rd, 2017|Literature, Medieval|

Anna Comnena, author of the Alexiad Anna Comnena was born a princess in 1083 AD, the oldest child of the Byzantine emperor Alexios. She was named for her grandmother, the powerful empress Anna, who ruled the Empire whenever Alexios was away fighting wars. This Anna raised her granddaughter, little Anna, with the hope that she would [...]

Third Crusade – Medieval history

By |2018-04-11T09:09:27+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Saladin (Salah al-din) When the Mamluk general Imad-ed-din Zangi died, he was succeeded by his son Nureddin, who added Damascus to the land his father had gathered together. And after Nureddin died in 1174 AD, a strong Kurdish general named Salah al-din (called Saladin in the West) took over. Salah al-din soon conquered Egypt from the Fatimids, and then he was [...]

Second Crusade – Medieval history

By |2018-04-12T00:08:07+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval, West Asia|

Castle of Edessa After the First Crusade in 1096 AD set up Christian kingdoms all along the coast of Israel and Lebanon, of course the Fatimid caliphs who had ruled that area before were very upset. Melisende and her son Baldwin By 1144, a Mamluk general, Imad-ed-din Zangi, had managed to unite enough Turks and Arabs in his army to attack [...]

Philip Augustus and Blanche of Castile

By |2018-09-21T08:49:12+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Medieval France: The castle at Dourdan, built by Philip Augustus Philip Augustus, King of France Louis VII's son, Philip Auguste, was much more ambitious and smarter than his father. Philip came to the throne in 1180 AD, when he was only fourteen years old. Go back to Louis VII Articles about medieval Europe Philip [...]

King Henry II of England – Medieval history

By |2018-05-22T23:15:30+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Henry II of England Queen Matilda of England When William the Conqueror died in 1087 AD, he left the throne of England to his sons William II and then Henry, and Henry left it to his daughter Matilda, the widow of Henry V of Germany. Delilah treacherously cuts off Samson's hair while he sleeps. Carved into [...]

Medieval England – History of Europe

By |2017-08-02T17:40:31+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Henry III of England King John died in 1216 AD, the year after John signed the Magna Carta. His son Henry III succeeded him. (Henry III was named after his grandfather Henry II.) Henry III was only nine years old when he became king. So he pretty much had to do whatever the barons (the rich men) told him [...]

Eleanor of Aquitaine – Queen of France and England

By |2018-04-12T00:08:02+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Eleanor of Aquitaine (Cloisters Museum, New York City) Eleanor of Aquitaine was fifteen years old in 1137 AD, and not yet married, when her father, the Duke of Aquitaine, died suddenly. Eleanor had no brothers, so she inherited her father's duchy, which included most of southern France. Coin minted when Eleanor was ruling [...]

Capetians – French History – Middle Ages

By |2018-04-15T16:50:53+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Monogram of Hugh Capet (980s AD) When the Carolingians died out in 987 AD, the lords of France met to choose a new king. They chose a man named Hugh Capet (hyoo ka-PAY). Hugh Capet was picked for being weak, so the lords could do whatever they wanted and the king wouldn't be able to do anything [...]