Cromwell

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Restoration England – British history

By |2018-04-24T10:40:56+00:00August 14th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Charles II of England Oliver Cromwell tried to leave his job as Lord Protector to his son Richard when he died in 1658, but Richard was so useless that two years later Parliament invited Charles I's son, Charles II, to come be king in England after all: historians call this the Restoration, because it restored the [...]

Thirteen states – American history

By |2017-08-12T09:44:31+00:00August 12th, 2017|History, North America|

The first English settlement at Jamestown in 1607 The first European people who came to the east coast of North America, in the 1600s and 1700s, came for many different reasons, so their settlements were very different from each other. The earliest successful settlement was in Florida, in 1565 AD, when Spanish explorers founded the [...]

Voltaire – European philosopher

By |2018-04-09T23:07:35+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Voltaire - a French philosopher Voltaire took ideas about religion, science, and human rights that were just getting started in the 1700s AD, and encouraged new ways of thinking about them. His ideas paved the way for the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolution, though he died just before the French Revolution. Voltaire was [...]

Thomas Hobbes – European philosophy

By |2018-04-23T09:44:15+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Thomas Hobbes, a European philosopher Thomas Hobbes (yes, he's the one that Calvin named his tiger after) lived in England, about fifty years after Calvin and about the same time as Descartes. While Hobbes' sister was kept at home, as a man Hobbes got to go to college at Oxford and read Thucydides, Aristotle, and other ancient authors. After [...]

Margaret Cavendish – European Philosophy

By |2018-04-11T18:19:38+00:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Margaret Cavendish Margaret Cavendish was a little younger than Hobbes and Descartes, but she knew both men. She had many philosophical debates with them when they were all living in Paris. Cavendish proposed that even things that seemed separate from your body, like thinking or dreaming, were really just part of the working of your brain. [...]

Louis XV and Lous XVI of France

By |2018-04-24T07:56:24+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philippe II d'Orleans, regent for Louis XV When Louis XIV died in 1715 AD, his great-grandson Louis was only five years old. First his uncle Philippe, then his teacher Cardinal Fleury, ran the government. Both these men saw that more and more people in France were getting interested in Enlightenment ways of thinking. How should the Enlightenment [...]

King Louis XIV – history of France

By |2018-05-17T16:20:24+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

King Louis XIV of France Louis XIV becomes king of France When Anne of Austria decided to retire, in 1661 AD, her son Louis XIV took over ruling France. (Find out more about Anne of Austria) Louis was 23 years old when he took power. Like his mother, Louis was most interested in getting more power [...]

French Revolution – History of France

By |2017-08-05T15:03:13+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

French women revolutionaries march on the king's palace at Versailles All through the 1700s, Enlightenment philosophers in France had been figuring out new ways of thinking about the world. Little by little they rejected religion and inherited power. They invented the idea that people should use logic and reason to make choices, that people - both [...]

Cromwell and Early Modern Britain

By |2018-10-29T20:39:48+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

James I of England James I of England When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 AD, she left England in very good shape. Because Elizabeth had no children, she left power to her nephew James I, the son of her sister Queen Mary. More about Queen Elizabeth European history articles James I was 37 years old. He [...]

Anne of Austria, Queen of France

By |2018-09-24T06:18:07+00:00August 4th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Anne of Austria Anne of Austria rules France Cardinal Richelieu died in 1642 AD and Louis XIII died the next year, in 1643. Louis' wife, Anne of Austria, ruled after him as regent for her four year old son, Louis XIV. Who was Richelieu? What is a regent? European history articles Anne's minister Mazarin Anne was in [...]