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René Descartes – European philosophy

By |2018-04-11T18:19:13+00:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

René Descartes was one of the earliest philosophers of the European Enlightenment, in the early 1600s AD. He was just 8 years younger than Hobbes. While Descartes was growing up, Henry IV was killed, Marie de Medici ruled, and then Richelieu. Descartes' mother died in childbirth when he was a baby. As a Catholic, Descartes went to Jesuit school. [...]

Early Modern France – Henry IV

By |2018-10-30T04:34:08+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Henry IV of France Henry IV of France In 1589 AD, Catherine de Medici died in France, and her last son, Henry III, was killed a few months later. Henry III had no sons, and after a short civil war his 36 year old cousin, Henry IV, became the next king of France. Henry IV [...]

Peter Paul Rubens – European art history

By |2017-08-04T15:40:52+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Rubens (self-portrait), 1620 AD Peter Paul Rubens was born in Germany in 1577. At that time, the Holy Roman Emperors were weak and there were a bunch of civil wars going on. His father, who was a lawyer, was also a Calvinist - a Protestant. The family fled to Cologne before Rubens was born, because of fighting between [...]