Holy Roman Emperor

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What does it mean to be Pope? History of Christianity

By |2018-04-24T23:11:02-07:00August 23rd, 2017|Religion, Romans|

Peter and Paul, in a mosaic from Ravenna (500s AD) In the later Roman Empire and the Middle Ages, the Pope was the leader of the Catholic Church. Whenever there was a question about whether God would like something or not, people could ask the Pope, and he would tell them what God wanted. According to [...]

Early Modern Spain – Philip II

By |2019-04-04T12:37:14-07:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philip II of Spain Philip II of Spain As the great-grandson of Isabella, who had sent Columbus to America, and the son of Isabella of Portugal, Philip II ruled Spain starting in 1556 AD. Isabella and Ferdinand Isabella of Portugal All our modern Europe articles Philip also controlled huge Spanish territories in South and [...]

Sixth Crusade – Medieval History

By |2017-08-03T15:08:20-07:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Soon after the failure of the Fifth Crusade, Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor, decided he would try his luck on Crusade, since he hadn't been allowed to go on the last one. Frederick marched on Acre, in Syria. Acre was under the control of the Islamic Mamluks. But not everyone [...]

King Henry II of England – Medieval history

By |2018-05-22T23:15:30-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Henry II of England Queen Matilda of England When William the Conqueror died in 1087 AD, he left the throne of England to his sons William II and then Henry, and Henry left it to his daughter Matilda, the widow of Henry V of Germany. Delilah treacherously cuts off Samson's hair while he sleeps. Carved into [...]

Republic of Florence – Medieval Italy

By |2019-06-10T21:04:22-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Romanesque baptistery in the Republic of Florence, Italy Florence ruled by Matilda of Canossa The last of the Carolingian Holy Roman Emperors died in 924 AD. Then northern Italy - including Florence and nearby Genoa - fell under the power of the Counts of Canossa. First Boniface III ruled Italy, then his daughter Matilda. They kept the peace [...]

Carolingian Empire – Medieval History

By |2019-03-01T04:49:47-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Louis the Pious (ca. 820 AD) After Charlemagne died After Charlemagne died in 814 AD, his son Louis inherited the empire, and then Louis's three sons divided his empire between them. One son took the west (mostly modern France), and one son took the east (mostly modern Germany) and one son took the middle (modern Switzerland [...]

Who was Charlemagne? Early Middle Ages

By |2019-04-11T12:26:17-07:00August 2nd, 2017|Medieval|

Who was Charlemagne? This is Charlemagne, or possibly his grandson (now in the Louvre Museum) What's Charlemagne's real name? Charlemagne's name is really Charles le Magne, or Charles the Great. In German they call him Karl der Grosse, which also means Charles the Great. Earlier Merovingians All our medieval Europe articles How did Charlemagne get [...]

Saladin Tax – Medieval Europe

By |2018-04-24T08:11:08-07:00August 1st, 2017|Economy, Medieval|

Sherwood Forest, where Robin Hood lived In the Early Middle Ages, most people did not pay any money taxes to the king. Instead, they gave chickens, honey, or work days to their own lord. Then in turn their lord passed on services to the king - if the king could make him do it. But in order to [...]