Henry IV

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What is excommunication? Christianity – religion

By | 2017-08-21T22:41:35+00:00 August 21st, 2017|Religion|

Medieval excommunication ceremony Excommunication was a Christian idea. It meant you could not  take Communion anymore. Beginning in the Roman period, bishops or groups of bishops excommunicated people who were doing things the Church didn't like. The Pope sometimes personally excommunicated very powerful people like kings and emperors. It might not sound so serious to be excommunicated. Who cares, [...]

René Descartes – European philosophy

By | 2017-08-06T19:57:43+00:00 August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

René Descartes was one of the earliest philosophers of the European Enlightenment, in the early 1600s AD. He was just 8 years younger than Hobbes. While Descartes was growing up, Henry IV was killed, Marie de Medici ruled, and then Richelieu. Descartes' mother died in childbirth when he was a baby. As a Catholic, Descartes went to Jesuit school. [...]

Early Modern France – Henry IV

By | 2017-08-05T11:45:49+00:00 August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Henry IV of France In 1589 AD, Catherine de Medici died in France, and her last son, Henry III, was killed a few months later. Henry III had no sons, and his 36 year old cousin, Henry IV, became the next king of France. Henry was a Protestant, but he converted to being Catholic in order [...]

Holy Roman Empire – Medieval Germany

By | 2017-08-02T23:16:27+00:00 August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Empress Agnes holding Henry IV After the death of Henry III in 1056 AD, his widow Agnes ran the Holy Roman Empire. With the help of the king of Poland, the Popes now felt stronger. They tried to break away from the control of the Holy Roman Emperors. The Popes insisted that priests and bishops served only the Pope. The Empress could [...]