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What is quartz? Igneous rock

By |2018-09-06T07:27:12+00:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|

What is quartz? A chunk of white quartz What is quartz made of? Quartz is an igneous rock made out of molecules of silicon and oxygen atoms held together in a crystal pattern. All of the silica and oxygen that make quartz came originally from the insides of stars, and it shot out [...]

What are igneous rocks? Volcanic stone

By |2018-04-21T11:56:41+00:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|

Obsidian tools Igneous means "fiery", and igneous rocks are rocks that were made by heating them up in a fire. Usually that fire is the big fire inside the earth, under the earth's crust. Inside the earth, radioactivity creates very high temperatures of about 1000 degrees Celsius (that's about 1800 degrees Fahrenheit). Because [...]

Hadean Eon – Earth, Moon, proteins, RNA

By |2018-09-06T07:09:44+00:00June 24th, 2017|Geology|

In the Hadean Eon, Earth was covered with active volcanoes like this one. Why is it called the Hadean Eon? Scientists named the Hadean Eon after the Greek god Hades, who ruled the underworld. That's because during most of the Hadean period the surface of the Earth must have been like the Christian [...]

Middle Kingdom Egyptian Sculpture

By |2018-04-19T12:28:57+00:00June 13th, 2017|Africa, Art, Egypt|

Amenemhet III, Egyptian pharaoh By the time of the Middle Kingdom, about 2000 BC, Egyptian sculptors, like other Egyptian artists, were beginning to work in a new style. Senroset, Egyptian pharaoh In the Middle Kingdom, the Pharaohs no longer look so serious and strong; now they look more boyish and eager, [...]

What is tin? Atoms, elements, chemistry

By |2018-04-16T14:02:21+00:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Like the other metals, tin is one of the heavier kinds of atoms. Every atom of tin has 50 protons and 69 neutrons in its nucleus (depending on the isotope; the exact kind of tin). Like other metals, all tin atoms form inside older stars that have become supernovas. On Earth, tin is very common. [...]

What is silicon? Atoms, elements, chemistry

By |2018-04-24T14:46:23+00:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Diagram of a silicon atom When a red giant star is getting older and runs out of helium fuel, it starts to convert the oxygen atoms in the star into silicon atoms. All silicon is made this way, inside a red giant star. Silicon is heavier than oxygen, because oxygen has only eight protons [...]