Charles I

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Puritans – American religion

By |2017-08-14T15:33:52+00:00August 14th, 2017|Modern Europe, North America, Religion|

A Puritan family about 1563 About 1563 AD, some people in England decided that they wanted to follow a way of life that they thought would be more according to what the Christian God wanted. They called themselves "the godly", but other people called them "Puritans." Puritan people, like Calvinists, thought only God decided whether you got into Heaven. [...]

Cromwell and Early Modern Britain

By |2018-10-29T20:39:48+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

James I of England James I of England When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 AD, she left England in very good shape. Because Elizabeth had no children, she left power to her nephew James I, the son of her sister Queen Mary. More about Queen Elizabeth European history articles James I was 37 years old. He [...]

Who was Velazquez? Spanish art history

By |2017-08-04T15:58:00+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Velazquez (self-portrait), ca. 1650 AD, when he was about fifty years old. Diego Velazquez was one of the best artists of the generation after Rubens. He was born in 1599, in Seville, in southern Spain. He may have been descended from Spanish Jews who had been forced to convert to Catholicism a hundred years earlier. Young [...]

Peter Paul Rubens – European art history

By |2017-08-04T15:40:52+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Rubens (self-portrait), 1620 AD Peter Paul Rubens was born in Germany in 1577. At that time, the Holy Roman Emperors were weak and there were a bunch of civil wars going on. His father, who was a lawyer, was also a Calvinist - a Protestant. The family fled to Cologne before Rubens was born, because of fighting between [...]

Late medieval Hungary

By |2018-09-18T06:32:33+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Late medieval Hungary: Mongols kill Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi (1241 AD) The Mongols invade Hungary Hungary fell on hard times in 1241 AD, when the Mongols invaded Eastern Europe from Central Asia. The Mongols brought with them a new invention -  gunpowder from China. Earlier history of Hungary Who were the Mongols? Who invented gunpowder? Many Jewish [...]