Alexandria

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Medieval Islamic science

By | 2017-08-17T15:21:26+00:00 July 27th, 2017|Islam, Science|

Al Tusi's diagram of linear motion from circular motion In the Early Middle Ages, before the formation of the Islamic Empire, Buddhists ran the world's biggest universities. One was in India, at Nalanda. Another was in what is now Pakistan, at Taxila. In Egypt, the University of Alexandria was still an important center of learning, too. Most serious scholars went to [...]

Almohad architecture

By | 2017-07-22T07:06:50+00:00 July 22nd, 2017|Africa, Architecture, Islam|

Minaret of Koutoubia mosque, Marrakesh (Morocco, 1100s AD) When the Almohads first conquered Morocco and Spain from the Almovarids in the 1100s AD, they showed their strength by building monuments in the cities of their new empire. They built this mosque right over the top of the old Almovarid palace in Marrakesh! Also, the Almoravids had not allowed [...]

Who was Euclid? History of Geometry

By | 2017-07-18T11:26:44+00:00 July 18th, 2017|Africa, Egypt, Science|

An Egyptian papyrus from about 100 AD which is a piece of one of Euclid's books Nobody knows much about Euclid's life anymore - it is all forgotten. We only know that he worked at the University of Alexandria, in Egypt, for a while. There are no pictures of him. We can't even be sure [...]

Who was Eratosthenes? Astronomy and math

By | 2017-07-18T11:19:43+00:00 July 18th, 2017|Africa, Egypt, Science|

A classroom at the University of Alexandria (al-Ahram 2004) Eratosthenes was born about 276 BC in Cyrene (modern Libya). When he was still young he moved to Alexandria, in Egypt, and in 236 BC, when he was forty years old, he became the chief librarian at the great library there. Eratosthenes spent the rest of his life in Alexandria, where [...]

Who was Aristarchus of Samos?

By | 2017-07-18T07:51:54+00:00 July 18th, 2017|Greeks, Science|

A copy of Aristarchus' work on parchment from Constantinople, about 950 AD. It shows the relative sizes of the sun, the Earth, and the moon Aristarchus, who was born on the Greek island of Samos around 310 BC, spent most of his life working at the University of Alexandria in Egypt. Aristarchus is the first person we [...]

Cleopatra and the Romans in Egypt

By | 2017-09-03T08:58:12+00:00 June 17th, 2017|Egypt, History, Romans|

Coin of the Egyptian pharaoh Cleopatra The Ptolemies, the Greek kings of Egypt, ruled Egypt for 300 years. But by around 50 BC, the Ptolemies were much weaker than the Romans. The Roman leader Julius Caesar started to think maybe the Romans could conquer Egypt. Julius Caesar When Julius Caesar visited Egypt to [...]

Ptolemies and Cleopatra – Greek Egypt

By | 2017-06-14T11:58:55+00:00 June 14th, 2017|Africa, Egypt, Greeks, History, Science|

Ptolemy I Soter, on a coin (He's trying to look like Alexander) In 332 BC Alexander the Great and his Greek army conquered Egypt from the Persians who were ruling Egypt. At first the Egyptians thought he would make them independent again, but he did not. Alexander made Egypt part of his own empire. [...]