African art got even better in the Middle Ages, after about 400 AD. By this time, nearly all of the people of Africa were trading and getting richer, and making more complicated pieces of art to show off their new wealth. They were also interacting with people from all over Asia and Europe, and with each other, and experimenting with mixing different artistic traditions.
In Kush and Aksum (modern Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eretria), many people converted to Christianity about 300 AD. But even though they were Christians, like the Romans, these people also traded a lot with India. Their images are a mixture of their own ideas with Roman, Indian, and Islamic art.
At the same time, East African people who remained traditional believers were carving stone stelae as grave markers in a much more African style. Even though they were only a little further south, they were more independent. So they used their art to show off their independence from foreign influences.
Very few traders had reached South Africa in the Middle Ages. In Zambia, people painted rock art onto the walls of caves as they had already been doing for thousands of years. This painting, probably done by Twa women about 500 AD, would have been used in coming of age ceremonies for girls. Even further south, the San people painted rock art onto the walls of caves. They painted hunting scenes and religious ceremonies.
In Central Africa, people formed the Luba Empire about 1300-1400 AD. They also developed their own artistic styles.
And further north in West Africa, people got richer with more and more Islamic trade across the Sahara desert, as the people of West Africa bought salt with their gold and slaves. Rich West African people patronized artists who molded increasingly realistic bronze and brass sculptures.
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