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Raphael – Biography – Renaissance art

By |2018-04-23T09:44:15+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Raphael's early selfie as a teenager Raphael, Titian, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci were the four greatest painters of the Renaissance in Italy. Raphael was born in 1483, when Michelangelo was eight years old and Leonardo was already grown up; Titian was a little younger. With their new Chinese compasses, the first European ships were just beginning to sail south to Congo and Angola. Columbus reached the Caribbean when Raphael was nine [...]

Medieval universities in Europe

By |2017-08-04T09:21:20+00:00August 4th, 2017|Medieval|

Medieval university With the fall of Rome, the universities of northern Europe closed too. The end of Mediterranean trade meant that nobody could afford to get an advanced education anymore. In Europe, there were only small schools run by the Catholic church. Or independent scholars gave public lectures and tutored private students. Or there [...]

Late medieval Italy – Guelfs and Ghibellines

By |2018-09-27T12:27:25+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Constance of Sicily (late 1100s AD) North Italy's republics All through the later middle ages, Northern Italy was still divided into lots of small independent city-states. The most important city-states were Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, Siena, and Venice. Florence and the Medici The port of Genoa Venice and the Ottomans But the Holy Roman Emperors often attacked these city-states and tried [...]

History of Democracy: Who invented democracy? Athens and Italy

By |2018-06-11T18:36:14+00:00June 29th, 2017|Government, Greeks|

Democracy history: The Pnyx, where Athenian men debated issues and voted What is democracy? Democracy means the rule of the people (in Greek). That is where each individual person has a vote about what to do. Whatever the most people vote for wins. There is no king or tyrant, and anybody can propose [...]