Matilda of Canossa

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Holy Roman Empire – Medieval Germany

By |2018-04-21T13:20:47+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Empress Agnes holding Henry IV After the death of Henry III in 1056 AD, his widow Agnes ran the Holy Roman Empire. With the help of the king of Poland, the Popes now felt stronger. They tried to break away from the control of the Holy Roman Emperors. The Popes insisted that priests and bishops served only the Pope. The Empress could [...]

Republic of Genoa – Medieval Italy

By |2018-05-07T12:11:06+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Medieval drawing of the city of Genoa, Italy (1493) Genoa in the Early Middle Ages Around 900 AD, the Holy Roman Empire began to lose control of Italy, and Genoa was among the Italian cities that got their independence about this time. Genoa became one of the first medieval cities where citizens won some political rights. Genoa's [...]

Republic of Florence – Medieval Italy

By |2018-04-24T09:23:14+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Romanesque baptistery in Florence, Italy When the last of the Carolingian Holy Roman Emperors died in 924 AD, northern Italy - including Florence and nearby Genoa - fell under the power of the Counts of Canossa: first Boniface III, then his daughter Matilda. Florence did very well under their rule: in 1059, Florence was able to rebuild its Christian baptistery in a beautiful Romanesque style. [...]

History of Democracy: Who invented democracy? Athens and Italy

By |2018-06-11T18:36:14+00:00June 29th, 2017|Government, Greeks|

Democracy history: The Pnyx, where Athenian men debated issues and voted What is democracy? Democracy means the rule of the people (in Greek). That is where each individual person has a vote about what to do. Whatever the most people vote for wins. There is no king or tyrant, and anybody can propose [...]