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Restoration England – British history

By |2018-04-24T10:40:56+00:00August 14th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Charles II of England Oliver Cromwell tried to leave his job as Lord Protector to his son Richard when he died in 1658, but Richard was so useless that two years later Parliament invited Charles I's son, Charles II, to come be king in England after all: historians call this the Restoration, because it restored the [...]

Protestant Reformation – Early Modern Europe

By |2018-06-20T13:11:49+00:00August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Catherine de Medici ruled France during the Protestant Reformation What was the Reformation? By the time Francis I of France and Henry VIII of England both died in 1547 AD, attacks by the Ottoman Empire were less of a problem. But civil war within Europe was more of a problem. All of Europe was beginning to fall into the Wars [...]

Henry VIII of England – The Tudors

By |2018-04-11T09:31:50+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Henry VIII When Henry VII died in 1509, his son Henry VIII became king of England. He was only 18 years old, but he grabbed his power and ran with it. Like the Ottoman sultans, like Francis I in France, and like Charles Quint in the rest of Europe at the same time, Henry VIII worked to make his country more [...]

Mary’s dress – Medieval Chartres

By |2018-09-01T06:36:45+00:00August 4th, 2017|History|

Mary's tunic, preserved in a glass case in the treasury of Chartres cathedral in France Romantic story of Mary's dress According to a popular story, about 800 AD, Irene, the Empress of the Roman Empire in Eastern Europe and West Asia, wanted to become more friendly with Charlemagne, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire in [...]

Late medieval Hungary

By |2018-09-18T06:32:33+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Late medieval Hungary: Mongols kill Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi (1241 AD) The Mongols invade Hungary Hungary fell on hard times in 1241 AD, when the Mongols invaded Eastern Europe from Central Asia. The Mongols brought with them a new invention -  gunpowder from China. Earlier history of Hungary Who were the Mongols? Who invented gunpowder? Many Jewish [...]

Perugino – medieval Italian painter

By |2017-08-01T08:03:49+00:00August 1st, 2017|History|

Perugino's selfie Perugino means "a man from Perugia," and that's where Perugino grew up, in Perugia in northern Italy. It was just at the end of the Middle Ages. Perugino was about the same age as Leonardo da Vinci. The two teenagers probably were apprentices in the same painter's workshop in Florence. But by the time Perugino [...]

Chartres cathedral – medieval France

By |2018-09-01T07:29:13+00:00July 30th, 2017|Architecture, Medieval|

Chartres on the horizon Why was Chartres so important? Even though Chartres, near Paris, France, was only a small town, it had an important treasure: the dress that people said Mary was wearing when she gave birth to the baby Jesus (or maybe when she found out she was pregnant). Thousands of people came on pilgrimage every year to [...]

Who was the Egyptian goddess Isis?

By |2018-04-21T12:09:40+00:00June 19th, 2017|Africa, Egypt, Religion|

Isis and her baby Horus (Middle Kingdom, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) The goddess Isis, in Egyptian mythology, was married to her brother Osiris (just like Hera was married to her brother Zeus). Isis means "the queen", in Egyptian. Then their enemy, the god Set, killed Osiris, and tore him apart. [...]