Joanna

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Austria-Hungary – Charles V to Ferdinand

By |2018-09-17T08:34:22+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Joanna of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain - the mother of Charles V Maximilian I and the Hapsburgs Maximilian I of the powerful Hapsburg family decided not to bother with the Pope's approval to be Holy Roman Emperor in 1508 AD. He thought the Hapsburgs were powerful enough to stand on their own. [...]

Late medieval Italy – Guelfs and Ghibellines

By |2018-09-27T12:27:25+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Constance of Sicily (late 1100s AD) North Italy's republics All through the later middle ages, Northern Italy was still divided into lots of small independent city-states. The most important city-states were Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, Siena, and Venice. Florence and the Medici The port of Genoa Venice and the Ottomans But the Holy Roman Emperors often attacked these city-states and tried [...]