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Enlightenment Science in Europe

By |2019-05-29T07:46:59-07:00August 7th, 2017|Math, Modern Europe, Physics, Science|

Gottfried Leibniz, a German mathematician - Enlightenment science What set off the Enlightenment? By 1650 AD, Europeans understood Islamic algebra and trigonometry better. Then they combined that with the exciting invention of the telescope and microscope (thanks to earlier Islamic work on glass). Together, these two new things led to a lot more new scientific discoveries. Medieval and modern glass Medieval [...]

Mary Astell – European philosophy

By |2019-02-04T06:09:16-07:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Mary Astell Mary Astell's backstory Unlike the slightly older Masham, and most other Enlightenment philosophers, Mary Astell was not from a really rich family. Who was Damaris Masham? Enlightenment philosophers All our modern Europe articles Mary Astell grew up in England. Like other girls in the 1600s AD, Astell never went to school, though her family [...]

Early Modern Spain – Philip II

By |2019-04-04T12:37:14-07:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philip II of Spain Philip II of Spain As the great-grandson of Isabella, who had sent Columbus to America, and the son of Isabella of Portugal, Philip II ruled Spain starting in 1556 AD. Isabella and Ferdinand Isabella of Portugal All our modern Europe articles Philip also controlled huge Spanish territories in South and [...]