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European science – the Enlightenment

By |2017-08-07T21:37:41+00:00August 7th, 2017|Math, Modern Europe, Physics, Science|

Gottfried Leibniz, a German mathematician By 1650 AD, Europeans understood Islamic algebra and trigonometry better. Then they combined that with the exciting invention of the telescope and microscope. Together, these two new things led to a lot more new scientific discoveries. The Wars of Religion also got a lot of people thinking about what they really believed. How could you know for sure? [...]

Mary Astell – European philosophy

By |2018-04-08T11:14:25+00:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Mary Astell Unlike the slightly older Masham, and most other Enlightenment philosophers, Mary Astell was not from a really rich family. She grew up in England. Like other girls in the 1600s AD, Astell never went to school, though her family spent most of their savings to send her younger brother to school. When her parents [...]

Early Modern Spain – Philip II

By |2018-09-17T08:09:16+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philip II of Spain Philip II of Spain As the great-grandson of Isabella, who had sent Columbus to America, Philip II ruled Spain in the mid-1500s AD. Philip also controlled huge Spanish territories in South and Central America, Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Texas. Philip also ruled the Netherlands and Flanders (now part of Belgium), north of France. As [...]