Later Persians - The end of the Persian Empire - Xerxes to Alexander
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Xerxes to Alexander

April 2016 - King Xerxes was killed in 465 BC, maybe by his son Ardashir I (Artaxerxes in Greek), who succeeded him. Ardashir was a weak king, and a lot of the conquered countries revolted while Ardashir was king. By this time, the rest of West Asia also had cavalry units, and it took Ardashir a long time to reconquer them.


Ardashir, on a coin, with a Zoroastrian fire altar on the back, and his tomb.

Egypt revolted (with the help of Athenian mercenaries), and it took years of fighting before the Persians got control again about 455 BC. The island of Cyprus also revolted, again with the help of the Athenian navy. This time the Athenians won their battle, but the treaty between Cyprus and Persia ended up being a good deal for the Persians. Ardashir did manage to stay on good terms with the Jews, by letting them practice their religion, as Ezra and Nehemiah say in the Bible. Ardashir died in 425 BC.
After Ardashir died, his son Darius II became King of Persia. He was the son of a woman Ardashir wasn't married to, and some people held this against him. Like his father, Darius II was a weak king. So Darius, too, spent most of his time trying to control revolts. There were revolts in Syria, Lydia, and Media (modern Iran). Egypt revolted again in 410 BC, and this time succeeded in breaking free of Persian control. However, as Greece got weaker during the Peloponnesian War, Darius II did manage to get more influence there.


Ardashir II of Persia (on a coin)

When Darius II died in 404 BC (just as the Peloponnesian War was ending), his son Ardashir II became King of Persia. But his younger brother, Cyrus, also wanted to be king. Only a few years later, Cyrus got together a bunch of Greek mercenaries (under the general Xenophon) and tried to kill Ardashir and make himself king. When the troops met in battle, Cyrus' troops (the Greek ones) won, but Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, so Ardashir II went on being king anyway.

Ardashir was another weak king like his father and grandfather, and never had much power himself. His wife and his mother made most of the decisions between them, and also his advisors. There

When Ardashir II died in 358 BC, his son Ardashir III killed off most of his brother's family in order to become the King of Persia. Ardashir III was a stronger king than his ancestors had been, and managed to reconquer Egypt in 342 BC. In other places, too, he stopped revolts and made Persia more powerful. The Silk Road began to make the Persians richer as they traded silver and glass east to the Sogdians and got back horses and Chinese silk. But Ardashir III was poisoned by one of his advisors, Bagoas, in 338 BC.

Bagoas put Ardashir III's son Arses on the throne, because Arses was a child and Bagoas figured he could tell Arses what to do. But when Arses began to grow up, Bagoas poisoned him, too, and in 336 Bagoas made Arses' cousin Darius III the King of Persia. He is probably the Darius mentioned in the Bible (Nehemiah 12.22). Bagoas put him on the throne thinking he would be easy to push around.


This is the desert where Darius III was killed.

Darius had a reputation for not being very ambitious. But then Darius fooled him - he murdered Bagoas. But having been picked because he was weak, Darius III did not make a very good king. When Alexander the Great invaded Persia, Darius was defeated in the battle of Issus (333 B.C.) and again in the battle of Gaugamela near Arbela (331 B.C.). In the end, Darius III was killed by one of his satraps, Bessus, in Bactria (modern Afghanistan), and Alexander took over the Persian Empire.

Alexander the Great

Bibliography and further reading about the Persian Empire:

Alexander the Great
More about West Asia
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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