Ziggurats in Mesopotamia and Iran
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Like the Egyptians at the same time, the Sumerians and Iranians around 3000-2500 BC devoted a lot of energy to building big buildings. But unlike the Pyramids, which are tombs for dead Pharaohs, the Sumerian and Iranian ziggurats (ZIG-oo-rats) are temples for their gods.

Because good building stone is hard to find in the river valley of the Euphrates River where the Sumerians lived, the Sumerians mostly did not build in stone. Instead, they built their ziggurats (and also their houses and city walls) out of mud-brick, or adobe.

Warka Ziggurat

Ziggurats are very high buildings. You start by making a big flat platform of mud-brick, and then you make a slightly smaller platform on top of the first one, and another on top of that, until the platform is just a little bigger than a temple, and then you build the temple at the very top, like a sand-castle. Maybe Mesopotamian people thought it was better to pray to the gods from as close as possible, and so if the gods lived up in the sky you had to build great platforms to get near them.

Of course it isn't very hard to build a very impressive building this way: it is solid all the way through, like a sand-castle, so it is easy to get it to stay up.

The Jews thought it was a very bad idea to try to reach all the way up to God like that, and their hatred of the ziggurats is reflected in the story of the Tower of Babel.

The Sumerians and their descendants continued to build ziggurats well into the Middle Bronze Age (the Third Dynasty of Ur), around 2000 BC, long after the Egyptians had stopped building pyramids.

Learn by doing: build a big sand-castle with smaller levels stacked on top of bigger ones.
More about the Pyramids

Bibliography and further reading about ziggurats:

The Sumerians, by Elaine Landau (1997). Easy reading. Despite the bad Amazon rating, this is a good solid introduction to the Sumerians, with an explanation of prehistory at the beginning for context. Pictures of ancient stuff, and good maps.

The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, by Henri Frankfort (5th edition 1997). The standard for college art history classes.

More West Asian Architecture
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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