Moche portrait of a blind man, 400-500 AD
(thanks to Oberlin College)
The collapse of the Olmec state
in Central America, about 400 BC, seems to
have opened the way for other people to develop states
of their own. The Moche were one of these kingdoms. They started up around
100 AD along the Pacific coast of South America, in what is now northern
Peru. The Moche kingdom was mainly based on farming corn
and beans, like the Maya at the same time. There
were big complicated irrigation
systems all over the area controlled by the Moche. Nobody knows exactly
what the government of the Moche looked like - it may have been an empire,
or it may have been a bunch of independent city-states
united by having the same language and culture, like classical
Greece just a little earlier.
The Moche built an adobe pyramid called the Huaca del Sol (the Temple of the Sun), and another pyramid nearby called the Huaca de la Luna (the Temple of the Moon). These had stone carvings and painted murals. There are many other Moche towns as well.
The Moche continued to control much of modern Peru until about 600-800 AD, when their empire seems to have collapsed. This collapse may have been caused by climate change about this time. In its place, the Inca empire formed.
Bibliography and further reading about the Moche:
Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University
Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.
More about Professor Carr's work on the Portland State University website
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