Ovid - Roman Poetry - The Metamorphoses
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Ares and Aphrodite
Ares and Aphrodite, from a house at Pompeii

With the end of the Roman Republic and the power of the Senate, poets were excited to explore the new possibilities of the new Roman Empire under Augustus. Ovid, who was born in 43 BC, was about twelve years old when Augustus took power, so as Ovid grew up, he became one of these poets who would push the boundaries of what was possible now - had the Empire brought freedom of the press?

Ovid (AH-vid) was from a rich equestrian family that lived near Rome, though not the richest senatorial class. He grew up with plenty of good food and owned many slaves. He had an excellent education at Rome itself, because his father wanted him to become a lawyer. But when Ovid's brother died, Ovid decided to be a poet instead of a lawyer. He published his first book of poetry about 18 BC, when he was 25 years old. It was called the Amores, or Love Poems. Ovid was pushing a boundary - under the new government, could you publish poems about love outside of marriage, or was that still forbidden? These poems weren't pornography - people read them in high school now - but they showed people having affairs outside of marriage, and enjoying them.

Ovid's second book also pushed boundaries, but in a different way. He wrote the Metamorphoses, or the Changes, which he published probably about 8 BC, when he was 35 years old. This is a long poem telling lots of short stories about the changes in the world from Creation to the death of Julius Caesar. It tells nearly every story from Greek mythology that we know - in fact, many Greek stories are known today mainly because they're in the Metamorphoses. Ovid's story of Daedalus and Icarus is the earliest one that we have today. Most of Ovid's stories are about change: Gaia changes and gives birth to the gods, Actaeon changes into a deer, Medusa changes into a monster, Philemon and Baucis change into trees, Arachne changes into a spider, Narcissus turns into a flower. Of course the biggest change of Ovid's life was the change from the Republic to the Empire, and Ovid may be hinting that just as all these other changes have come and gone, so will Augustus and the Roman Empire.

Ovid followed up his Amores about AD 1 (when he was 43 years old) with another book of poems, the Ars Amatoria - the Art of Love. These poems gave advice to rich Roman men and women about love, especially love outside of marriage. The poems were elegant and exciting, and very well written, and they became very popular in Rome. In Pompeii, somebody scratched out lines of Ovid's poetry on walls as graffiti!

Tomis (modern Constanta), Romania

But as it turned out, the answer was no, you couldn't write about these things and get away with it. In 8 AD, when Ovid was already an old man for those times (51 years old), Augustus banished him outside the Roman Empire, to a village called Tomis on the shores of the Black Sea (in modern Romania). Ovid left behind his wife and his daughter, and all his friends, and even though he made friends with the people of Tomis, and learned their language, he was very sad in Tomis. In 17 AD, when Ovid was sixty years old, he died there.

Bibliography and further reading about Ovid:

Roman literature
Ancient Rome
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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