Caesar and Cleopatra - The Late Republic - Ancient Rome
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Caesar and Cleopatra

Cleopatra
Cleopatra

When Caesar got to Egypt, he was happy that Pompey was dead. He also met Cleopatra there, and took her back to Rome with him. They had a child. But when Caesar declared himself dictator for life, this was too much for the Senators, and they murdered him in 44 BC.

A younger group of men then formed another group: this time it was Caesar's friend Mark Anthony, Lepidus (who was very rich), and Octavian (Caesar's nephew and adopted son). It worked out just the same way.

Augustus
Mark Anthony

Cleopatra soon became Mark Anthony's girlfriend, and she and Mark Anthony had three more children. Eventually they forced Lepidus forced out of power. Then Anthony and Cleopatra and Octavian got into a civil war. In 31 BC Octavian beat Anthony and Cleopatra in battle at Actium, and Anthony and Cleopatra killed themselves (or so Octavian said, anyway).

For more on the Late Republic:

Classical Rome, by John Clare (1993). For kids, the whole political history from beginning to end.

Oxford First Ancient History, by Roy Burrell (reissued 1997). Easy reading. It skips around a lot, not trying to tell everything, just highlights.

The Romans: From Village to Empire, by Mary Boatwright, Daniel Gargola, and Richard Talbert (2004). Okay, it's a little dry, but it is up to date and has all the facts you could want.

The Roman Revolution, by Ronald Syme (1960). Still a classic.

From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68
by H. H. Scullard (1959, 5th edition 1990). Another classic.

Cleopatra
The Julio-Claudians
More Roman history
Ancient Rome
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Dress up as Cleopatra!

A Cleopatra costume for Halloween or for acting out Cleopatra's story

A Cleopatra costume for younger people, in a smaller size

Julius Caesar costume (also works for Mark Anthony)


Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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