Basilica of Maxentius - Ancient Rome - Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius
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Basilica of Maxentius

Basilica of Maxentius
Basilica of Maxentius

June 2016 - The Basilica of Maxentius was the last building to be built in the Roman Forum before the fall of Rome. The Emperor Maxentius started it in the early 300s AD, and it was a big meeting-space where officials could hold court cases, or public meetings. Maxentius' architects were very up-to-date and designed the building with all sorts of new features. They decided to build Maxentius' new basilica out of brick and concrete (which was normal), but with a great brick and concrete vaulted roof, where most earlier basilicas had wooden roofs.

vaulting of big brick building
Looking into one of the side aisles.

See the great concrete vaults? Those are only the vaults of the side aisles; it was originally much higher in the center nave (you can see what's left of the center roof starting at the top of the picture, and a chunk of the vault that fell down, surrounded by the metal fence in the front).

When Constantine killed Maxentius in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 AD (where Constantine converted to Christianity), Constantine took over construction of the half-finished basilica.

corner of large brick building with a white marble bit
Marble decoration of the
Basilica of Maxentius

Maxentius had planned for people to come into the basilica from the middle of the long side facing the Forum, but Constantine decided to change the plan and have people come in from the middle of the short side instead (the way people do in churches). It's interesting to see that architects were already changing the entrance to the short side before people began to use basilicas for churches.

This picture shows some of the short side, along with a bit of the marble that once decorated the inside of the basilica.

big marble head of a man - as big as a whole person
Constantine's giant head

Constantine also put an enormous statue of himself on the other short side, opposite the door where you would see it as soon as you came in.

big marble foot
Constantine's giant foot

Some of the pieces of the statue are still around today!

Even though the Basilica of Maxentius is not in very good shape today, this was not the fault of the builders - the basilica was knocked down by a bad earthquake that hit Rome in the 800s AD, when the basilica was already 500 years old.

Bibliography and further reading about the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine:

Roman Architecture, by Frank Sear (1983). The standard college textbook.

The Architecture of the Roman Empire: An Introductory Study, by William MacDonald (1982). Actually not so introductory, but it's got great illustrations that really make the building techniques clear.

Roman Imperial Architecture, by J. B. Ward-Perkins (1992). A more detailed textbook, and harder going.

More about early Christian churches
More Roman Architecture
Ancient Rome
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Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram or Twitter.
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