Jews in the Islamic Empire - Jewish History
Welcome to Quatr.us Study Guides!

Jews in the Islamic Empire

Maimonides synagogue
The synagogue where Maimonides worked in Cairo, Egypt

When the Arabs first began to attack the Roman Empire, in the 630s AD, the Jews were quite enthusiastic about the idea of getting rid of their Christian persecutors. We don't really know whether the Jews actually helped the Arabs to conquer Israel and Syria, but many Roman Christians suspected that the Jews had helped the Arabs. This led to a new wave of Christian persecutions of Jews, not only in the Roman Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean, but also in the western kingdoms, especially by the Visigoths.

The Arabs, on the other hand, were fairly welcoming to the Jews, and many Jews moved from the Christian countries to the Islamic Empire at this time. I don't mean that the Jews never had any more trouble. The Arabs wanted the Jews to convert to Islam, and the Jews had to pay special taxes if they would not convert. But they were not killed, or made to live in special parts of town, or forced to convert, or at least not usually. Some Jews, like the doctor Al Tabari, did convert in order to work at the Abbasid court. Others did not, like the most famous Jewish person who lived at this time, Maimonides. Maimonides was a philosopher who tried to make the scientific work of Aristotle agree with the religious work of the Bible.

Cordoba synagogue
The synagogue in Cordoba, Spain, built under Arab rule in 1315 AD.
It is decorated in the Arab style. Maimonides studied in an earlier synagogue here as a child.

Later on, in 1492, when Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand decided to throw all of the Jews out of Spain, many thousands of Spanish Jews travelled to the Ottoman Empire, or to North Africa, where they were welcomed and lived in peace.

Medieval European Jews

Main Judaism page
Main religion page


LIMITED TIME OFFER FOR TEACHERS: Using this article with your class? Show us your class page where you're using this article, and we'll send you a free subscription so all your students can use Quatr.us Study Guides with no distractions! (Not a teacher? Paid subscriptions are also available for just $16/year!)
Please help other teachers and students find us: link to this page from your class page.
Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
Cite this page
  • Author: K.E. Carr
  • Title:
  • Site Name: Quatr.us Study Guides
  • Publisher: Quatr.us
  • Date Published:
Did you find what you needed? Ask your teacher to link to this page so other people can use it too! Send it in and win a Quatr.us "Great Page!" award!
Sign up for more free articles and special offers in Quatr.us' weekly newsletter:
We will never share your e-mail address unless you allow us to do so. View our privacy policy. Easy unsubscribe links are provided in every email.
Comment on This Article

Does your class page honor diversity, celebrate feminism, and support people of color, LBGTQ people, and people with disabilities? Let us know, and we'll send you a Diversity Banner you can proudly display!
Looking for more?
Quatr.us is loading comments...
(Comments will appear after moderation, if they are kind and helpful. Feel free to ask questions, and we'll try to answer them.)
Cite this page
  • Carr, K.E. . Quatr.us Study Guides, . Web. 28 April, 2017
ADVERTISEMENT