Stoics - Ancient Greek Philosophy
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Stoic Philosophy

Cicero
Cicero

May 2016 - The Stoics were a group of philosophers who first began teaching their ideas in the Hellenistic period. Stoicism was founded by a man named Zeno, who lived from 335-263 BC. He was friendly with the successors of Alexander who ruled Greece. Zeno lived in Athens, which was a great center of learning. He used to lecture not in a classroom but outside (in Greece's sunny weather), on the porch of a public building. The word for porch in Greek is STOA, and so people called his students Stoics, "people who hang out on the porch."

Zeno thought people should try to reach inner peacefulness. The best way to be peaceful was to be moderate in everything. So people should not eat too much, even of good food, and they should not party too much. But they should not work all the time either, or diet all the time. Men (Zeno didn't mention women much, but there were women who were Stoics) should give to charity and help out in the government, but they should not go to the extreme of rebellion. People should try not to want anything too much, but be happy with what they had. This would lead to a happy life.

You might compare Stoicism to Confucianism and Taoism, which had some similar ideas about balance and moderation a little bit earlier in China.

Stoicism was very popular among the Romans, who generally liked moderate behavior anyway. Two famous Roman Stoics were Cicero and Seneca.

Bibliography and further reading about Stoic philosophy:

Cicero
Seneca
Skeptics
Epicureans
Greek philosophy
Roman philosophy
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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