United States Independence - American History
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Independence

In the 1700s AD, most of North America was still under the control of native people. Because Pueblo people and the Navajo had taken Spanish invaders' horses and traded them north, they and the Sioux, Ute, Blackfoot, and other Plains Indians did very well. Hunting bison was much easier on horseback than it had been on foot, and people also sold a lot of horses to other native people and to Europeans who were settling the Mississippi Valley and the Midwest.

But the English farmers in the South forced more and more West African people to come to North America to work on their tobacco and rice plantations (big farms). At the same time, more and more English settlers came to build towns along the Atlantic coast. Many of the people who came had been convicted of crimes in England like stealing, and the English government sent them to North America to get rid of them, and to get more people to work on the farms along the Atlantic coast. By the 1760s, a lot of English settlers and soldiers came to Canada too, where they pushed out the French settlers and the Algonquin and took control. By the end of the 1700s, there were enough English people along the Atlantic coast that they wanted to be their own independent country, and they fought the Revolutionary War to get their independence and start the United States of America. They needed help to win the war, and they got that help from the French king Louis XVI, from Spain under Charles III, and from the native Algonquin people.

The Iroquois and the Cherokee fought on the side of the English, and after they lost the war, the new United States government took away most of their land. Many English people who still wanted to be part of England, and many Iroquois, moved to Canada.

Learn by doing: ride a horse
More about the Revolutionary War
After the Revolution

Bibliography and further reading about American history:

After the Revolution
American History
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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