Voltaire - European Philosophy - Candide
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Voltaire took ideas about religion, science, and human rights that were just getting started in the 1700s AD, and encouraged new ways of thinking that paved the way for the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolution, though he died just before the French Revolution.

Voltaire was born to a rich family in France. His mother died when he was seven years old. Three years later, when he was ten, he went to Jesuit schools (His older sister Marguerite had to stay home). When Voltaire was 17 he decided to become a writer even though (as with Hobbes and Descartes) his father pushed him to be a lawyer like himself. An argument with a more powerful family got Louis XV to send Voltaire to prison, and then to exile in England for three years. While Voltaire was in England, angry because he was jailed unfairly, he studied Cromwell's reforms from a generation earlier and decided to work to limit the power of the kings in France.

While he was in England, Voltaire also read Shakespeare's plays and began to write plays like them in French. And, he learned about the work of Isaac Newton. With his girlfriend du Chatelet, who also was interested in Newton's work, Voltaire began to do scientific experiments with light. (Like the other philosophers of his time, Voltaire never married or had children.) He became friends with, and influenced, younger philosophers like Rousseau and Benjamin Franklin. Rulers like Catherine the Great of Russia exchanged letters with Voltaire too.

Voltaire's work against censorship and religion made the king and the church persecute him in France. To keep from going to prison again, Voltaire went to live in Prussia for a while. But there too the king persecuted him. Voltaire ended up moving back to France, where he stayed in the country with his niece, away from Paris and the king.

Like Hume, who lived at the same time, Voltaire believed that reason and logic would always work out better than religious faith (though Voltaire did believe in God). Voltaire's devotion to reason and evidence helped him to see the contributions of women to society, the contributions that Islamic scientists had made to Europe, the achievements of Jewish, Chinese, Indian, Native American and African culture, the benefits of smallpox innoculation, and how wrong colonialism and slavery were. Voltaire lived to be 83 years old, and all his life he worked to stop ignorance, injustice, and religious persecution wherever he found it.

More about du Chatelet
Go on to Rousseau

Bibliography and further reading about Voltaire:

du Chatelet
Modern Europe
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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