When Henry VII died in 1509, his son Henry VIII, at 18 years old, became king of England. Like the Ottoman sultans, like Francis I in France, and like Charles Quint in the rest of Europe at the same time, Henry VIII worked to make his country more of a country and himself more of an absolute king.
One way Henry VIII got more power was that he started his own Christian church. Henry said he wouldn't do what the Pope said anymore, even if the Pope excommunicated him. (Henry also got a lot of money by closing many Catholic monasteries and taking their money!) Henry also killed a lot of people, including two of his seven wives. But in Henry's time England's main business was exporting wool cloth, and nobody was very interested in ships or sailing to the New World.
When Henry died, probably of diabetes, in 1547, he was only 55 years old. Henry's son Edward VI became king of England. But Edward was only nine years old, so his uncle Edward Seymour was the real ruler of England. When Edward died (possibly of tuberculosis or pneumonia) at 15, his older half-sister Mary soon became Queen of England.