David, by Donatello
Donatello was an Italian sculptor, from Florence, in the later Middle Ages. He was born in Florence about 1386 AD, so when he grew up he was a friend of the architect Brunelleschi who built the big dome of Florence's new cathedral. Donatello helped Ghiberti make the doors. Like his friend Brunelleschi, Donatello was interested in ancient Roman art. He and Brunelleschi even went to Rome and dug up old Roman sculptures and measured old Roman buildings. Donatello tried to use the ideas of Roman art in his own art.
Earlier sculptors had made stiff, upright statues, or statues that looked tortured and twisted, as in Cimabue's paintings. Donatello brought a new flexibility and humanity to his statues. His David was the first free-standing nude statue made in Italy since the fall of Rome. Donatello also created a lot of low relief sculptures like this Madonna and Child. Here, too, he tried to give the people realistic bone structure and proportions. He tried to make them behave like real people. See how the baby Jesus is twisting around instead of sitting stiffly?
Donatello died in Florence in 1466 AD.