Ancient Indian Clothing - What did people wear in Ancient India?
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Indian Clothing

stone carving of woman wearing thin drapery
Woman in a long tunic
Mathura, 100s AD

June 2016 - People in India wore mostly cotton clothing. India was the first place where people grew cotton, even as early as 5000 BC in the Stone Age. Men wore dhoti, a cloth wrapped around their waists and knotted at the back. Some men also wore turbans on their heads; many men wore man-buns and kept their beards short or shaved. Men kept on dressing like this for thousands of years. Women wore short skirts, just from the waist to the knees, and a cloth head wrap, maybe to keep the sun off. Women wore necklaces and bracelets, too, made of stone and shell beads, and later of bronze and silver and gold.

By the Vedic period, women wore cloth wrapped and pinned around themselves much like the outfits of Iranian women or Greek women. Some women wore skirts wrapped and pleated around their waists and knotted in front, with a separate piece of fabric for a shawl or veil, and a tight shirt underneath.

Indian market
Two women wearing saris

By the Guptan period in late antiquity, many women had shifted to wearing one very long piece of cloth called a sari (still with the tight shirt underneath), that they wrapped around themselves in different ways. The word "sari" comes from a Sanskrit word that just means cloth. Saris are first mentioned in the Vedas, about 600 BC. Rich women wore saris made of silk from China, but most women wore cotton saris.

There were many different ways of draping saris, depending on how rich you were and where you lived in India - to dress up women wore their sari like skirts with a top part thrown over their shoulder or worn over their heads as a veil. Working women often pulled their sari up between their legs to make a sort of pants. Women who were fighting with the army tucked in the top part of the sari in the back, to free up their arms for fighting. Most saris were five or six yards long, although some saris were nine yards. Younger women generally wore brightly colored saris, but widows and other women in mourning for someone who had died wore only white saris.


How to put on a sari

At the same time, the first sharp steel needles reached India from China, and as a result rich men and women began to wear stitched clothing fitted tightly to their bodies, with lots of embroidery. But most people still wore saris.

Moghul

With the Islamic invasions around 1000 AD, Persian fashions in clothing entered India and became popular especially in the north, though they never replaced the sari or the dhoti. Both women and men began to sometimes wear trousers with long tunics over them down to their knees, called churidar or salwar kameez. Women generally wore churidar with a long veil or scarf over it.

Indian women who could afford it usually wore a lot of silver or gold jewelry, especially earrings and nose-rings. Sometimes they also put a spot of red on their foreheads called a bindi (BINN-dee) as a decoration.

Learn by doing: practice putting on a sari or a dhoti
More about Indian cotton
More about silk
More about Ancient India


Bibliography and further reading about Indian clothing:

India Paper Dolls Indian costumes Eyewitness India Ancient India India Sari

Traditional Fashions from India Paper Dolls, by Ming-Ju Sun (2001). Written for kids. Includes two dolls and sixteen costumes.

India and Sri Lanka (Cultures and Costumes), by Conor Kilgallon (2002). Easy reading.

Eyewitness India, by Manini Chatterjee (2002). Written for kids.

Ancient India, by Virginia Schomp (2005). Written for teens. Very good for reports.

The Sari, by Mukulika Banerjee and Daniel Miller (2004). For adults, a great discussion of what it's really like to wear a sari.

More on Indian costumes and activities

Indian food
Indian people
India-related projects
Ancient India
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Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
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