Ancient Greek Literature
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Greek Literature

a woman attacking another woman with an axe
Clytemnesta murders Cassandra

November 2016 - The Greeks wrote a great deal, and a surprising amount of what they wrote is still available to us today, 2500 years later. We traditionally divide Greek literature into types:

1) the epic (EH-pick):
Around 700 BC, Homer wrote two connected epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epics are long poems which tell the story of a hero.

2) the poem:
Two early Greek examples are Hesiod's Theogony and Works and Days, both from around 700 BC. There are also a number of shorter poems by Archilochus (Are-KILL-oh-cuss) and Sappho (SA-foe) from the 600s BC, among others. Sappho's poems are just about the only surviving literature by a Greek woman.

painting of a man sitting in a chair reading
Menander

3) the play:
Plays are divided into tragedies and comedies. Tragedies are generally sad, while comedies are funny. The oldest tragedies that we still have were written by Aeschylus around 500 BC. We also have tragedies written by Sophocles (around 450 BC) and Euripides (around 425 BC). The oldest comedies that we still have are by Aristophanes, and were also written around 425 BC. Some later comedies were written by Menander around 350 BC. The Greeks wrote plays in verse, like poems. The plays we have are mostly the ones kids read in school (because there were more copies of them, so they were more likely to get preserved), so they're generally about serious themes, and appropriate for school - they don't have any sexy parts. Probably Greek theater also had lots of funny, R-rated plays too, but they're lost now.

4) the history:
Two major histories that we still have are those by Herodotus and Thucydides. About 450 BC, Herodotus wrote a history of the Persian Wars. About 400 BC, Thucydides wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War. After the Peloponnesian War, Xenophon wrote about his adventures as a mercenary soldier for the Persians. During the Roman takeover of Greece, Polybius wrote a History of Rome in Greek. Greeks wrote history in prose (not in verse).

5) philosophical dialogues and treatises:
The first written philosophy was written by Plato around 380 BC in the form of a kind of play, two or more people talking to each other. Later on both Plato and his student Aristotle wrote regular philosophical books, in prose without dialogues.

6) legal speeches and political speeches:
The first speeches we have surviving are from the 300s BC. The three most famous speechwriters were Lysias , Isocrates, and Demosthenes.

Learn by doing: putting on a Greek play
More about Greek philosophy

Bibliography and further reading about Greek literature:

History of Greek Literature, by Albin Lesky (reprinted 1996).

Greek Theatre, by Stewart Ross (1999). Easy reading.

Greek and Roman Theater, by Don Nardo. For teenagers.

More Greek stories - Greek myths
Ancient Greece
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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