At the end of the 400s BC, Greece, and especially Athens, was devastated by a terrible war which involved nearly all the Greek city-states, the Peloponnesian War. The end of the war left the Greeks too poor for much sculpture, but when people did begin creating new sculpture again it was in a new style. There is more emotion, especially sad feelings like grief. There is more interest in children and women, who are sometimes shown without clothes now. Portraits of individuals also became more popular, and sculptures of a wider range of people including slaves, foreigners, people with disabilities, and mythical creatures like satyrs and fauns.
There are several famous sculptors from the Hellenistic period. One was Praxiteles (pracks-IT-uh-lees), who worked around 340 BC (the same time as Aristotle). Praxiteles carved a statue of Hermes and the infant Dionysos.
Veiled dancer (now in the Metropolitan Museum)
A man with dwarfism dancing
(now in Walters Art Gallery)
Seated girl (Capitoline Museum, Rome)
Hellenistic statues show a new confidence. The figures move and twist in all directions. People in the rest of Europe and all across West Asia, Central Asia, and India also admired and imitated Hellenistic Greek sculpture.
Learn by doing: make a clay figurine of someone doing something
More about the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic Sculpture, by R.R.R. Smith (1991). Not so easy to read, but a good straightforward approach.
Art in the Hellenistic Age, by J. J. Pollitt (1986). This is more theoretical than Smith's book, and might be harder going. It is more about why Hellenistic artists worked the way they did, rather than just a list of what they made.
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