Bananas were the hip new food in Europe in the 1400s AD, so it's not surprising that the first Portuguese sailors who came to the Americas brought banana seeds with them to try growing in the Caribbean and Brazil, just as they brought sugar cane at the same time. Bananas were a big success in Latin America and the Caribbean. They grew easily in the tropical climate, and many people there began to eat a lot of bananas.
Bananas were too hard to ship from South America to North America without them rotting, so they remained rare and expensive in North America and Europe until the 1880s, when refrigerated sailing ships were invented. By 1900 refrigerated ships carried tons of bananas from Latin America to the United States, Canada, and Europe every year. The main banana shipping company, United Fruit, worked with rich landowners and controlled the governments of Ecuador, Honduras, Guatamala, and other Central American countries. The tremendous inequality in those countries arose because of the banana business.
In the 1960s, this centralization led to a crisis when the Gros Michel, the main type of banana grown for the United States and Europe, developed a fungus and became impossible to grow in large quantities. The big producers eventually switched to the Cavendish banana.
Until the 1990s, many banana farmers were small peasant farmers, but NAFTA put many small farmers out of business and helped the rich plantation owners. Today, the small farmers are trying to keep some of the market by organizing cooperatives and selling fair trade bananas. But a new fungus may soon make the new Cavendish bananas also impossible to grow.
Learn by doing: try some different kinds of bananas that your grocery store has
Where did bananas come from?