What was Egypt like in the Stone Age?
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Stone Age Egypt

hunting birds
Hunting birds

During most of the Stone Age, people in Egypt, like people everywhere else in the world, lived by hunting and gathering their food. They traveled around from place to place in the Nile Valley, harvesting wild grasses, digging up roots, picking berries, and finding bird eggs. They fished in the Nile River and they gathered reeds from its shores to make baskets. They hunted wild cattle and turtles.


By around 10000 BC, Egypt had gotten crowded enough so that people were forced to begin growing their own food instead of only hunting and gathering it.

About the same time, people also started farming in West Asia. Probably people have always known how to grow plants from seeds, but they preferred to just go out and pick wild food, because that was easier. But when there got to be enough people, the wild food didn't grow enough to feed everyone, and people had to begin planting their own as well. People also began to keep tame cows, sheep, and pigs that they probably bought from their West Asian neighbors. Today we call this the Agricultural Revolution.

But farming brought many other changes too. Once people were planting crops, they had to defend the land where their crops were. If strangers came by, they couldn't just leave. There was more fighting. Soon people began to band together into larger communities that could fight better. They chose leaders. And those leaders, seeing the advantages that farming brought them, forced more and more people to start farming and settle down under their leadership.

Around 3500 BC, people in Egypt got domesticated donkeys from their neighbors further south in Sudan. Traders used these donkeys to carry ivory and gold and basalt north into Egypt, and to carry Egyptian things south to Sudan and Kenya. That made both places richer than they were before. Together, the trade and the farming helped to start the Old Kingdom.

Learn by doing: go pet a donkey in a petting zoo
Go on to the Old Kingdom
Stone Age Africa
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Bibliography and further reading about Stone Age Egypt:

The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, by Ian Shaw (2002).

History of Ancient Egypt: An Introduction, by Erik Hornung (1999). A college textbook. On the conservative side - not much on new developments.

Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture, by William H. Stiebing (2002). Expensive for a paperback, but brief and very up to date. And yes, it includes Egypt in the Near East.

Old Kingdom (2686-2160 BC)
First Intermediate Period (2160-2040 BC)
Middle Kingdom (2040-1633 BC)
Second Intermediate Period (1786-1558 BC)
New Kingdom (1558-1085 BC)
Third Intermediate Period (1085-525 BC)
Persian rule (525-332 BC)
Greek rule (332-30 BC) (also called the Hellenistic)
Roman rule (30 BC-700 AD)
Islamic rule (700 AD to present)

Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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