Quatr.us answers questions
Projects and Pages for mid September:
Battle of Wounded Knee (1890)
NATIVE AMERICANS: As brave Sioux people stand firm to protect the water from an oil pipeline, let's remember the many other times that Europeans have pushed around Native Americans in the name of business and progress: Columbus torturing the Caribs and Arawak, the Spanish enslaving Pueblo people, the French Jesuits who betrayed the Algonquin, the Founding Fathers who cheated the Cherokee, the Franciscans who enslaved Californians, the Mormons who pushed out the Paiute, the United States Army that massacred the Sioux.
CLEAN WATER: Clean water's something we all need, from Sumerian irrigation systems and Egyptian Nilometers to the Greeks building public water fountains, to Roman aqueducts and sewers, to Chinese public toilets, to the cholera epidemics of the 1800s and the resulting sewage systems. Governments have always known their responsibility to keep the water clean.
BATTLE OF MARATHON: September 12th, 490 BC - The Persian Empire of Iran under Darius I attacks the Athenians at Marathon, in retribution for an Athenian attack on Sardis, but the well-trained Athenian hoplites defeat the Persians and save their city.
FIRST JEWISH REVOLT: In the 60s AD, the Jews had revolted against Roman rule, trying to get back their independence as they had under the Maccabees. September 6th, 70 AD marked the end of the First Jewish Revolt, as the Roman general (and future emperor) Titus let his troops sack and plunder Jerusalem, including the Second Temple.
MICHELANGELO'S DAVID: September 8, 1504 AD - The Renaissance artist Michelangelo finishes his second great masterpiece, the statue of David (as in David and Goliath) and puts it on display in a public square in his native city, Florence.
WHAT TO DO THIS WEEK: Support the Sioux at Standing Rock however you can (some ideas here).
New pages this week:
CYNICS: Diogenes the Cynic and his followers, who believed in self-sufficiency, simplicity, and shamelessness - not caring what other people thought of you, but making your own decisions. Check out our older pages on Socrates, Stoics, Epicureans, and Skeptics, too.
OATS AND OATMEAL: The history of oats, which started out as a weed or as food for horses, but have also been important food for people in cold, wet climates like Scotland, Scandinavia, Poland, and Russia, where wheat and barley don't grow well.
New discoveries this week:
STONE AGE BOAT: Looks like people in Wales (south-west Britain) had excellent wood boats in the Stone Age, about 3000 BC - more confirmation of the importance of boats, fishing, and seafood for early people.
STONE AGE IRRIGATION: Apparently Stone Age people living in Israel's Jordan Valley about 5000 BC - long before the Sumerians - were already using complicated irrigation systems to keep their olive trees watered. Were they selling their oil? These early farmers also grew wheat, barley, buckwheat, lentils, and peas - the article doesn't say, but we'd be surprised if they didn't grow figs, too.
AMERICAN MAROONS: Many African-Americans freed themselves from slavery and lived independently in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia and North Carolina, farming, fishing, keeping pigs, and building houses on small islands in the swamp. They came out of the swamp after the Civil War, when they could be free.
Seasonal food of the week:
FALL: A hint of frost in the air? Turn to some warm early fall recipes that still use late-summer vegetables like ratatouille, corn fritters, eggplant with ground lamb, zucchini and tomato galette, eggplant moussaka, scallops primavera, or stuffed zucchini. Still cold? Just go ahead and make some quick, easy hot and sour soup.