Newsletter: July 18 2016
Welcome to Quatr.us Study Guides!

Quatr.us answers questions

Projects and Pages for mid July:

stone pillar with words carved on it
Code of Hammurabi (1700 BC)

POLICE, LAWS, JUDGES: People probably wrote down the earliest law codes about 3500 BC. The Code of Hammurabi, from 1700 BC, is one of the first law codes we still have. Police forces took longer to get started, but Greek cities had Scythian slaves as police by around 500 BC. More about Biblical law, Greek law courts, Islamic government, the Talmud, and medieval law.

MUSLIMS CONQUER SPAIN: July 19th, 711 AD - An invading Moorish army conquered Spain from the Visigoths and made it part of the Umayyad Caliphate. Spain became an important center of universities and science and brought many new ideas and inventions to Christian Europe.

JEWS SHOVED OUT OF ENGLAND: July 18th, 1290 AD - King Edward I of England decided to force all the people living in England who happened to be Jewish to leave the country. Most of them moved to France or the Netherlands.

painting of a white woman in rich clothing
Mary, Queen of England

MARY QUEEN OF ENGLAND: July 19th, 1553 - After the death of Henry VIII, his daughter, Mary, became Queen of England, pushing aside her cousin. She tried to force England to go back to being a Catholic country, but after a while she was forced out herself and her younger sister Elizabeth became Queen and persecuted the Catholics instead.

SENECA FALLS: July 19th, 1848 - In a year with many people's revolutions in it, and more American men getting the vote, American women (like European women) also decided to try to get the vote for women. They met at Seneca Falls to get the ball rolling, but it took until 1920 before women could actually vote.

WHAT TO DO THIS WEEK: Watch the political conventions - history in the making!

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New page this week:

folding fan with chinese painting
A Ming dynasty folding fan

FOLDING FANS: People have been using leaves and leafy sticks as fans since there first were people. In ancient Egypt and Assyria, people made fans out of feathers, and then later they made fans out of silk, hemp, and parchment. Paper fans came around the 500s AD, and folding fans were probably invented in Japan, in the 600s or 700s AD.

New discoveries this week:

MONKEYS USING TOOLS: Archaeology shows that not only do monkeys make and use stone tools today, they've been doing it at least since 1300 AD - since before Europeans came to South America.

GENDER FLUIDITY: Anthony Corbell thinks that early Romans were more gender fluid, with nouns easily changing their gender, but later on (maybe under Greek or Christian influence?) their gender categories got more rigid.

BRONZE AGE CLOTH: A Bronze Age village in England seems to have been growing, spinning, and weaving lots of luxury linen cloth, maybe to sell to other villages or even further away. They also imported glass beads from West Asia for their jewelry.

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Seasonal food of the week:

TOMATOES: Definitely starting to see some delicious tomatoes now. How about making this gluten free eggplant and tomato tart on a cornmeal crust? Or, a big summer favorite around here is tomato Tarte Tatin - but it's pretty hard to do! For a simpler recipe, try scallops primavera. If it's rainy where you are, try grilled cheese sandwiches and tomato soup. Or just slice tomatoes up, scatter some basil on them, and eat them plain!

Also check out our seasonal and budget recipes at Gevirts.com.

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Syrian Refugees (September 2015)

History of Iran (August 2015)

Music in Ancient Africa

Women in the Roman Empire

How did people evolve to have eyes?

Riots and the Cancellation of Debts

Why do bees like flowers, and flowers need bees?

Where did chocolate come from?

Why do horses like apples and carrots?


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Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram, Pinterest, or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
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