What is Mitosis? - Sexual Reproduction
Welcome to Quatr.us Study Guides!

What is Mitosis?

Eukaryote cells generally reproduce themselves using a method called mitosis. When a eukaryote cell senses that there is plenty of food around, it splits into two new cells that together can eat more food. But it's pretty complicated for eukaryote cells to divide.

They have a lot of DNA molecules, to control all the different parts of a eukaryote cell, like the Golgi bodies and the lysosomes. To make new cells exactly like the old ones, each new cell has to end up with exactly the same DNA as the old cell.

First the DNA molecules build exact copies of themselves out of proteins inside the nucleus. To keep the copies from getting mixed up, each old DNA molecule stays attached to its copy in the middle, making a lot of X-shaped DNA molecules, where one side of the X is a mirror image of the other side.

Then the cell makes two spindles out of protein - bunches of strings of protein. One string of protein from each spindle attaches to each side of each X-shaped DNA molecule. Then the two spindles move to opposite ends of the cell, each pulling their half of the DNA with them and breaking the X apart. At the same time, the nuclear membrane breaks apart (nobody knows exactly how). When the DNA reaches the ends of the cell, it forms new nuclear membranes around it. Now the cell has two nuclei, exactly the same.

Now the cell membrane begins to pinch in half in the middle, being careful to have some mitochondria or some chloroplasts on each side of the middle. Finally the two sides separate and make two new smaller cells. That's how yeast and other one-celled eukaryotes reproduce, and it's how your body makes new muscle cells or skin cells when it needs them.

What is Meiosis?
Cell Reproduction

Bibliography and further reading:

Parts of a Cell
Biology
Chemistry
Quatr.us Home


Please help other teachers and students find us: link to this page from your class page.
Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram, Pinterest, or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
Sign up for more free articles and special offers in Quatr.us' weekly newsletter:
We will never share your e-mail address unless you allow us to do so. View our privacy policy. Easy unsubscribe links are provided in every email.
Check out our new ebook: Short and Simple: Ancient Greek Myths! - just out! Twenty-five easy to read, illustrated stories, from Pandora to Medea, Icarus, and the Trojan Horse (you can read these online as samples). Get it this week for just $14.99, five dollars off the regular price of $19.99.
Cite this page
  • Author: K.E. Carr
  • Title:
  • Site Name: Quatr.us Study Guides
  • Publisher: Quatr.us
  • Date Published:
Did you find what you needed? Ask your teacher to link to this page so other people can use it too! Send it in and win a Quatr.us "Great Page!" award!
Sign up for more free articles and special offers in Quatr.us' weekly newsletter:
We will never share your e-mail address unless you allow us to do so. View our privacy policy. Easy unsubscribe links are provided in every email.
Comment on This Article
Quatr.us is loading comments...
(Comments will appear after moderation, if they are kind and helpful. Feel free to ask questions, and we'll try to answer them.)
Cite this page
  • Carr, K.E. . Quatr.us Study Guides, . Web. 27 May, 2017
ADVERTISEMENT