What is DNA (deoxyribonucleic Acid)?
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What is DNA?

DNA
A strand of DNA (seen through an electron microscope)

If the RNA theory of the origin of life is right, then after a short time, about four billion years ago, the oceans on Earth had a lot of these strands of RNA molecules floating around in them, making proteins, and also making new strands of RNA. But RNA molecules were weak, and they were always breaking and making copies that were not really exactly right - not exactly the same as the original RNA molecule.

This was partly helpful, because there got to be a lot of different kinds of RNA molecules, and therefore a lot of different kinds of proteins. But it was also partly bad, because if you had a good healthy RNA molecule it was hard to copy it exactly.


Here is a video that shows how DNA zips and unzips.

Some of these RNA molecules evolved to make two sides to their spiral staircases instead of just one. These formed a double helix: two spirals twisting inside each other. It was a much more complicated kind of molecule, but it was much stronger, just as a ladder is stronger with two sides than with only one. These new molecules are called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA for short. DNA stairs are made of two purines - adenine and guanine - and two pyramidines - thymine and cytosine.

DNA double helix
This photo shows the edges of the double helix.

When a DNA molecule needed to make a copy of itself, it had nowhere for the new purines to fasten on to. So it had to unzip itself, just like the zipper on your jacket, and then it could make some new molecules and then zip itself back up again.

Learn by doing - DNA model building
Another project - seeing real DNA from a strawberry
The next step in the development of life: cells

Bibliography and further reading about DNA:

RNA
Cells
Biology
Chemistry
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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Now that the weather's nice, try some of these outdoor activities! How about bicycle polo, or archery for a Medieval Islam day? Or kite flying or making a compass for a day in Medieval China? How about making a shaduf for a day in Ancient Egypt? Holding an Ancient Greek Olympic Games or a medieval European tournament? Building a Native American wickiup?