Why do eyes have pupils?
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Pupils

Cat Eyes

By around 550 million years ago, some kinds of worms began to evolve eyespots sunken into their heads to protect them from being damaged. As a side effect, it turned out that being sunken into the head also helped to focus the light on just one spot, so that more light reached that spot and the worm could see better. This also let the worms tell what direction the light was going from. Seeing better gave these worms an advantage, so more of them survived.

But roundworms still could only tell light from darkness, not see a picture the way you do (if you can see). About 500 million years ago, some worms evolved pupils that were sunk so deep that they acted like a pinhole camera to let the worms see an image.

The pupil of your eye is the black spot in the middle of the colored part. It looks black, but really it is a hole that lets light into the inside of your eye, just like the sunken deep hole that roundworms had millions of years ago.

About 400 million years ago, some fish developed pupils that could get bigger or smaller. That way they could let in more or less light: more light, if it was dark, and less light, if it was bright out. Your pupils do that too: try standing in the bathroom in the dark until your eyes adjust and you can see a little. Then look in the mirror and turn on the light. Your pupils are big, but they will gradually get smaller and smaller. Look right at the light and then at the mirror again to make your pupils even smaller.

To see how the pupil works, build a pinhole camera

Nervous system and senses

Bibliography and further reading:

Nervous System
Biology
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Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
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